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Indian Polity by Laxmikant - Free ebook download as PDF File or read book online for free. The book titled Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth. Indian Polity 4th Edition (Old Edition) [Laxminath, M.] on dancindonna.info Indian Polity and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. .. In the ebook format, a book quality is determined by 2 primary things: First of all laxmikanth is one of the interesting books and on kindle it went to version because if. Laxmikant Extra Chapters in 5th dancindonna.info 3. The Complete e-Book 4th Edition. Laxmikanth - Indian dancindonna.info OR 1 Laxmikant 5 edition ebook.

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M. LAXMIKANTH dancindonna.info Preface to the First Edition I have It directly and fully covers the Indian Polity section of the paper on General It has led to a number of Constitutional amendments, that is, 1st, 4th, 7th, 25th. dancindonna.info - Buy Indian polity 4th edition by M laxmikanth book online at best prices in india on dancindonna.info Read Indian polity 4th edition by M laxmikanth book . Format: Kindle Edition; File Size: KB; Print Length: pages; Publisher: McGraw Hill Education; Fourth edition (16 August ); Sold by: Amazon.

Historic background[ edit ] The preamble is based on the Objectives which was drafted and moved in the Constituent Assembly by Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 December Ambedkar said about the preamble:- It was, indeed, a way of life, which recognizes liberty, equality, and fraternity as the principles of life and which cannot be divorced from each other: Liberty cannot be divorced from equality; equality cannot be divorced from liberty. Nor can liberty and equality be divorced from fraternity. Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things.

Though India became a sovereign country on 26 January , having equal status with the other members of the international community, she decided to remain in the Commonwealth of Nations.

Pandit Nehru declared that India will continue — "her full membership of the Commonwealth games of Nations and her acceptance of the King as the symbol of the free association of the independent nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth". Her membership of the Commonwealth of Nations and that of the United Nations Organization do not affect her sovereignty to any extent. It is merely a voluntary association of India and it is open to India to cut off this association at her will, and that it has no constitutional significance.

Socialist[ edit ] Before the term was added by the 42nd Amendment in , the Constitution had socialist content in the form of certain Directive Principles of State Policy.

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The term socialist as used here refers to democratic socialism , i. Essentially, it means that since wealth is generated socially wealth should be shared equally by society through distributive justice , not concentrated in the hands of few, and that the government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.

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Secular[ edit ] Secular means that the relationship between the government and religious groups are determined according to constitution and law.

It separates the power of the state and religion. By the 42nd Amendment in , the term "Secular" was also incorporated in the Preamble. There is no difference of religion i. Hinduism , Buddhism , Jainism , Sikhism , Christianity and Islam are equally respected and moreover, there is no state religion.

All the citizens of India are allowed to profess, practice and propagate. Explaining the meaning of secularism as adopted by India, Alexander Owics has written, "Secularism is a part of the basic structure of the Indian Constitution and it means equal freedom and respect for all religions. Every citizen of India 18 years of age and above and not otherwise debarred by law is entitled to vote. Republic[ edit ] In a republican form of government , the head of state is elected and not a hereditary monarch.

Thus, this word denotes a government where no one holds public power as proprietary right. As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on a hereditary basis for life or at least until abdication, a democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. Thus, India has a President who is elected and has a fixed term of office.

India seeks social, economic and political justice to ensure equality to its citizens. India stands for eliminating all forms of exploitations from the society.

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It stands for equitable distribution of wealth, economic equality, the end of monopolistic control over means of production and distribution, decentralisation of economic resources, and the securing of adequate opportunities to all for earning their living.

It stands for the grant of equal political rights to all the people without discrimination. The Constitution of India provides for a liberal democracy in which all the people have the right and freedom to participate.

Liberty[ edit ] The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities of Indian nationals. This establishes that there are no unreasonable restrictions on Indian citizens in term of what they think, their manner of expressions and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action. However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.

Equality[ edit ] This envisages that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination: all are equal before the law. Fraternity[ edit ] This refers to a feeling of brotherhood and a sense of belonging with the country among its people.

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It embraces psychological as well as territorial dimensions of National Integration. It leaves no room for regionalism, communalism , casteism etc.

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The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. The word 'integrity' has been added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment The Supreme Court had held that the power of Parliament to diminish the area of a state as guaranteed in article 3 of the Constitution does not cover cession of the Indian territory to a foreign country.

In many cases, this leads to communal violence between two or more communities. This is also not an opinion but is a fact because there have been many cases of this over the last century. It was the Muslim League who had come up with the two-nation theory and had demanded that another country is formed just for Muslims as they thought that they were second-class citizens in India.

That lead to the partition of India which resulted in the lives of close to 1 million people. This later lead to anti- Sikh riots in which close to Sikhs, including woman and children, were either burned alive or killed and thousands became homeless.

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Even today there are many communal parties. The then chief minister of Gujrat, Narendra Modi, who was also of BJP, was accused of starting or initiating the riots. From the examples we just discussed we know how dangerous it could be if a communal party is in power although it might not be true in all cases. Through this power, the party might bring good to the society, or else it could use the media and manipulate the education system to spread its ideology.

Another method to remove communal violence is through the right kind of education. As previously mentioned, most communal parties spread wrong ideologies and one of the reasons that people believe them so easily is because they have not received the right kind of education.

That is because in some states the children are brainwashed at a young age as the curriculum in their schools spread their religious ideologies. The previous statement is supported by K. Much before the M.

Extracts from Hindu scriptures, stories from Hindu mythology and the heroism of Hindu kings against Muslim rulers are their main content. Continuing with the previous argument, better education would mean a better understanding of other communities. This could be used to promote inter-communal marriage. Due to the lack of proper education in many places, religious orthodoxy remains an issue and there have been cases in which a couple from different religions either get exiled by their communities or are hunted down by their communities.

This could be changed by proper education as this may get rid of previously mentioned radical approaches. If two families from different communities are joined together by marriage, then this could be followed by other families in other communities too. This system of inter-communal marriage is already taking place across India in big cities but it will really make a difference if also done in small cities and rural areas. One of the very important reasons of why communal violence takes place mostly between Hindus and Muslims is due to how media portray Muslims.

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Due to the history between the two communities because of the violence that ensued during the partition and the recent Muslim attacks in the name of Islam all over the world, the media has somewhat demonized Muslims.

Due to all this, the term Islamophobia is used. There have also been many attacks in India by Pakistan. Pakistan has been blamed for using militant forces on India and has also been held responsible for trying to turn the Muslim population in India against India.

An example of this would be when after the independence of India, the dispute over who Kashmir belonged to arose. In an attempt to get a hold of Kashmir, Pakistan sent militants to Kashmir to take it by force. It was only when Kashmir formally became a part of India when India troops arrived and drove the militants away. That is not the only case when India was attacked by Islamic terrorists. In , a group of terrorists, whose base was in Pakistan attacked Mumbai.

The attacks lasted 4 days and over people were killed. As previously said, Pakistan targets the Muslim community in India in attempts to turn them against their own country. With the help of the media, we can get rid of these preconceived notions. So from all the above arguments and examples, we can say that communalism is nothing but a false ideology and that the impression it has on people is of a wrong reality which will be harmful to the society.

Mukhia, Harbans.