Fuels and Combustion is a systematic and comprehensive work on a subject The third edition of the book has a completely new introduction. Fuels and Combustion by Samir Sarkar, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. COMBUSTION A N D F L A M E 24, () BOOK REVIEW Fuels and Combustion. By Samir Sarkar. Orient Longman, Rs. Comprehensive.
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dancindonna.info - download Fuels and Combustion book online at best prices in India on dancindonna.info Read Fuels and Combustion book reviews & author details and more . Title, Fuels and Combustion. Author, Samir Sarkar. Publisher, Orient Longman, ISBN, , Length, pages. Export Citation. Fuels And Combustion Is A Systematic And Comprehensive Work On The The Themes Discussed In The Book Are In The Indian Context And The Text Is.
About this book Practical, easy-to-follow advice that saves lives Based on the author's thirty years of hands-on experience working in the field of industrial fuel systems and combustion equipment safety, this book integrates safety codes with practical, tested, and proven guidance that makes it viable to specify, operate, and maintain industrial fuel and combustion systems as safely as possible. Readers will learn about fuels, piping, combustion, controls, and risks from more than fifty "real-life stories" the author has integrated into each chapter so one can immediately see and understand the concepts presented. The incidents depicted resulted in forty-six deaths, hundreds of serious injuries, and billions of dollars in losses. Each example is followed by lessons learned, helping readers understand what could have been done to avoid the disaster or minimize the resulting destruction of life and property. The book begins with an introductory chapter that presents key concepts in industrial fuel and combustion systems safety.
Fuels and combustion. By Samir Sarkar. Orient Longman, Rs. Comprehensive introductory Download PDF.
Recommend Documents. Comprehensive introductory textbooks on the subject of fuels have never been plentiful despite the lip service paid to the importance of energy to living standards, especially in the industrialised countries of the world. Professor Sarkar is thus to be congratulated on his attempt to produce one such book, and it may perhaps be significant that he hails from a developing country.
It is unfortunate in that this text was written in and does not therefore reflect the impact of more recent events upon the international energy situation, nevertheless, Sarkar's development of the subject is systematic and sensible. Following an introduction in which available sources of energy are reviewed, separate chapters are devoted to discussions of the winning, preparation and processing of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, respectively.
To Western eyes, these sections of the book may appear quaintly old-fashioned in part, when dealing at length with, for example, the manufacture of wood charcoal and the production of producer gas, but they do provide a unique insight into the problems of energy supply in India. So, the materials and surfaces of parts of combustion chamber, all plastic materials having contact with fuel and fuel injection system must be improved.
Hydrogen Although hydrogen the most common element in the world and it does not exist in nature in its pure state, so it has to be produced from sources like water and natural gas.
The environmental impact and energy efficiency of hydrogen depends on how it is produced [ 46 , 47 ]. Hydrogen has been studied as an alternative gas fuel for a long time. Hydrogen has not some problems associated with liquid fuels, such as vapor lock, cold wall quenching, inadequate vaporization and lean mixing. Hydrogen has clean burning behaviors. As hydrogen is burned, it products mainly water. The combustion of hydrogen does not bring out toxic products such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide [ 48 ].
The most important advantage of hydrogen is that it does not produce CO2 gas, which is one of the most important sources of global warming. In addition, hydrogen has a wider limit of flammability than gasoline, diesel and natural gas [ 49 , 50 ]. Moreover, hydrogen has high flame speed and it has high self-ignition temperature [ 51 ]. Also, hydrogen can easily burn in ultra-lean mixtures [ 52 ]. The energy required to ignite the hydrogen-air mixture is only 0.
Therefore, it is ideal for poor mixed burns [ 50 ]. Finally, hydrogen can be used at wide compression rates in internal combustion engines as the self-ignition temperature of hydrogen is too high [ 53 ]. Due to these properties, many studies have been carried out on the use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines [ 54 , 55 , 56 ]. Due to the low energy required for the ignition of hydrogen, the mixture immediately ignites when it comes into contact with a hot spot in the cylinder.
As a result, knock may occur [ 56 , 57 ].
As can be seen from Figure 12 , another disadvantage of hydrogen is its low energy density [ 58 ]. In addition, the formations of NOX emissions are increased by hydrogen combustion due to high flame temperature [ 59 , 60 ]. The increasing of NOX with hydrogen can be seen from Figure Figure The energy density of some fuels .
NOX variations at different engine speeds a  and different excess air ratio b  with addition of hydrogen to gasoline. The experiments in the study fueled by pure hydrogen and gasoline [ 61 ], in which Figure 13 was taken, carried out on a four-cylinder, four stroke, SI engine with carburetor, having 8.
In this study, to simulate the hydroxygen, the hydrogen-to-oxygen mole ratio was fixed at through adjusting the injection durations of hydrogen and oxygen.
Hydrogen mixture Because of hydrogen has some negative effects on internal combustion engine, it is used as a mixture rather than pure.
The most widely mixture of hydrogen is HCNG. The mixture has been formed by the blending of natural gas. Natural gas-hydrogen mixtures HCNG , which are considered as alternative fuels for conventional engines, are mixtures formed to combine the superior properties of natural gas and hydrogen.
There are many studies [ 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 ] using HCNG as an alternative fuel.
As can be seen in Figure 14 , the hydrogen adding causes an increase in thermal efficiency and causes an expansion of the flammability limits. In addition, when the figures are examined, it is seen that the addition of hydrogen increases the stability of combustion and the value of brake power and reduces the specific fuel consumption.
Moreover, as can be seen in Figure 15 , the addition of hydrogen to natural gas leads to a decrease in CO and HC emissions and an increase in NOX values.
The engine with single-cylinder having 7. Another mixture made using hydrogen is the ethanol-hydrogen mixture. In the literature, it can be found many studies on the use of hydrogen and ethanol in internal combustion engines [ 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 ].
The BSFC variations versus ignition timings at and compression ratios for different ethanol-hydrogen blend . The results indicated that brake thermal efficiency raised and emissions values descended when compare to gasoline.
As can be seen from Figures 17 and 18 , the experimental results showed that the values of specific fuel consumption are declined between The values of brake thermal efficiency are declined between 6. The curves of cylinder pressure and heat release rate are advanced to top dead center by the adding of hydrogen to acetylene.
CO and HC emissions versus different fractions of hydrogen . Alternative fuels for new ICE applications Today, one of the most important problems in the use of internal combustion engines is the production of harmful emission gases. Moreover, for the purpose of reducing emissions, some of these studies focused on the using of alternative fuels. In the new engine applications have a process in which a homogeneous mixture of air and fuel is compressed under the conditions in which auto ignition occurs close to the end of the compression stroke, followed by combustion, which is significantly faster than conventional diesel or Otto combustion.