The Bar and Beverage Book explains how to manage the beverage option of a restaurant, bar, hotel, country club—any place that serves beverages to. This revised Fourth Edition of The Bar and Beverage Book has the most up-to- date material you need for managing a beverage operation, including bar. DOWNLOAD COOKINGE EBOOK THE BAR BEVERAGE BOOK 5th Edition | 18 Mb | Pages | PDF | English. Download ebook the bar.
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Bar and Beverage TEXTBOOK - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. A look into the world of beverages. The Bar and Beverage Book, 5th Edition by Chris Thomas and Costas Katsigris - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The Bar. Katsigris (Wiley) THE BAR & BEVERAGE BOOK FOURTH EDITION Costas Katsigris Chris ThomasSN John Wiley & Sons, Inc.L.
Table of contents Chapter 1: Responsible Alcohol Service Chapter 3: Creating and Maintaining a Bar Business Chapter 4: Bar Equipment Chapter 5: The Beverages: Spirits Chapter 6: Wine Appreciation Chapter 7: Wine Sales and Service Chapter 8: Beer Chapter 9: Sanitation and Bar Setup Chapter Mixology, Part One Chapter Mixology, Part Two Chapter Employee Management Chapter Chris Dains of Remy-Amerique, for his knowledge of French wine. Andrew Frankel of Vineyard Brands, for his tireless marketing efforts on behalf of South African wines.
Russ Kempton, who continues to update our information on scotch in general, and on single malt scotches in particular.
Gary A. Beat A.
Kotoun of Kobrand Corporation, for inspiring additional research into Ports and Champagnes. Anthony J. Tony died in , but he was an early inspiration to Gus, both to learn and teach about wine. S In Texas, the land of six-packs, LaBarba managed to create a wine culture thatN continues to thrive. Randy C. Al Moulin, a retired wine educator and industry leader.
At a youthful age 86, Al continues to be a vigorous cheerleader for each new edition. Keith Beers, for sharing their beer- sales and -promotion knowledge. Robert Schafer of Classical Wines of Spain, for his limitless knowledge of wines in general, and Spanish wines in particular. David P. Shanahan of Delaney Vineyards, for his knowledge of Texas viticulture.
We would like to thank the following people for reviewing this book in its various stages: Best wishes to all. In most cultures over the centuries, these beverages have been accepted as an es- sential part of everyday life. And yet they also possess a magic that can sometimes take the edge off human troubles or add a special dimension to a ceremony or celebration.
There has always been a dark side to alcoholic beverages, too, which we will examine in coming chapters. The purpose of this chap- ter, however, is to offer a glimpse into the past and the present, both good and bad.
It will provide you with important background to help you understand the challenges that the bar and beverage industry faces today. SNL In fact, it is impossible to separate them. In the s the United States was nearing the end of Prohibition, which was an unsuccessful attempt to regulate alcohol consumption by outlawing it entirely. From earliest times, human beings seem to have wanted alcoholic beverages. Indeed, some historians theorize that one of the reasons our nomadic forebears settled into civilized life was to raise grain and grapes to ensure supplies of what they looked upon as sacred beverages.
The Bible mentions wine consumption in both the Old and the New Testaments. Early peoples all over the world fermented anything that would ferment: We know that grapes were being cultivated as early as 6, B. The Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Chinese were all tending their vines at about the same time.
It is believed that the ancient Greeks got their viticulture knowledge from the Egyptians, and began to make wine about 2, B. The Oxford English Dictionary credits the old English word win, which derived from the Latin vinum and is further traced to the ancient Greek word oinos. Made of clay, they were remarkably airtight. So they began coating their clay vessels with tar on the insides, a process known as pitching. Yes, it prevented air from mixing with wine, but can you imagine what the addition of tar must have done to the quality of the wine?
By 1, B. Conquering Saracen Arab tribes in the Middle Ages brought both winemaking and distillation skills with them. The words alcohol and still are Arabic in origin.
As the Roman Empire spread it brought grapes to Northern Europe, too. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church was the most prominent pro- moter of viticulture. Monasteries became the vanguards of wine production and knowledge because wine was needed both in everyday life and in sacramental activities.
In one of the more fascinating discoveries of this century—at least, for wine lovers—a bottle of wine from the s was discovered in , bobbing around in the North Sea off the coast of The Netherlands. A tasting panel of seven experts gathered to sip and study the contents. They decided it was an early variant of dry port that had been colored with a small amount of elderberry juice.
Its alcohol content was estimated at In many cultures people associated intoxicating beverages with wisdom. Early Persians discussed all matters of importance twice: Saxons in ancient England opened their council meet- ings by passing around a large, stone mug of beer. Greeks held their famous sym- posiums philosophical discussions during hours of after-dinner drinking.
Alcoholic beverages, often in combination with herbs, have been used for cen- turies as medicines and tonics. Indeed, herbs and alcohol were among the few ways of treating or preventing disease until about a century ago. But probably the most important historic use of alcoholic beverages was also the simplest: Bread and ale, or bread and wine, were the staples of any meal for an ordinary person, with the drink considered food.
Household water was commonly polluted. Milk could cause milk sickness tuberculosis. But beer, ale, and wine were disease-free, tasty, and thirst-quenching, crucial qualities in societies that preserved food with salt and washed it down with a diet of starches. Both wines and grapevines were imported from France to the New World in theS s. By the early s about 1, wineries dotted the United States, and they were mostly small, family-owned businesses.
Wine was still considered an effete beverage until the s, when Italian immigrants came to the United States with their home winemaking skills and a hospitable culture that accepted wine as a simple, everyday part of mealtimes and celebrations. From a thirteenth-century wine vessel, to more than 3, corkscrews, you can learn about the history of winemaking in English or Spanish. People used them universally in religious rites, and they still do.
The Israelites of the Old Testament offered libations to Jehovah. The Romans hon- ored Bacchus, god of wine see Figure 1. Christians used wine in the sacrament of Communion. Primitive peoples used fer- mented beverages in their sacred rites. Victories, weddings, and other sacred and joyous occasions were celebrated with wine or ale. In the book Religion and Wine: Whether these early Americans were Baptists, Methodists, or Mormons, they permitted and enjoyed limited wine consumption as part of their worship.
Interestingly thisNL His name later became a famous trademark for juice products. Some groups feared that consuming alcohol would weaken sensibility, ethics, and moral values and diminish self-control in an age where many churches sought greater control over their members.
And so the rift widened. Since the s, the relationship between alcohol and religion has been the subject of debate and ambivalence.
It is a temperate, civilized, sacred, romantic mealtime beverage recommended in the Bible. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. They must have liked it: They had a goddess of brewing, Ninkasi, and a hymn to her, which was the beer-making recipe put to music. Their successors, the Babylonians, knew how to brew 20 different types of beer. The recipes were recorded by scribes as early as 6, B.
In ancient times biber was considered lower class compared to ale, which was made in similar fashion but without the addition of hops. Hops became popular in Europe in the Middle Ages when it was discovered they served as a natural preservative; other herbs had been tried, sometimes with disastrous i.
The use of yeast was not yet known. Today the European Union will permit importation of beers that are not brewed in accordance with the Beer Purity Law—but only if this fact is clearly stated on the label. This connection became even stronger in Europe around A. Even during periods of fasting, monks were permitted to have beer. There were everyday, lower-alcohol beers, and others with higher alcohol content for special occasions. Just about every civilization has made some type of beer, from whatever grain or root or plant was available in abundance.
African tribes made their beer from millet; in Japan, the chief ingredient was rice; in Europe and North and South America, it was barley. The Pilgrims were headed for Virginia, but the ship was running out of beer. Before the beverage preference in the United States was ale, which had been popular in England.
It was made like beer, but fermented more quickly, at higher temperatures than beer. Beer production and sales played colorful parts in U.
Brewing became an aristocratic and popular business. Adams is credited with suggesting to Washington that he supply the Revolutionary Army with two quarts of beer per soldier, per day. In Detroit, Michigan, Bernard Stroh, from a beer-making family in Rhineland, Germany, opened his brew- ing company in In St.
Louis, Missouri, Eberhard Anheuser downloadd a struggling brewery in A dozen years later, Adolph Coors, another German immigrant from the Rhineland, started to brew beer in Colorado. Its name comes from a German word for storage or storehouse; it was routinely stored for several months in cold temperatures before serving. Making lager-style beer required ice, so it was typically brewed in winter and stored until summer, when the demand was highest.
Ice was easily available from Lake Michigan, and there were plenty of local caves to store the beer. When refrigerators and icemakers were invented, lager could be brewed anytime, anyplace. Heat was just as important as cold to the fast-growing beer-making industry. This process of pasteurization enabled beer to be bottled for shipment. Yeast had been around for many centuries and used for cooking and medicinal purposes. By the s stainless-steel barrels were replacing the old wooden ones in modern brew- eries.
The Chinese and the peoples of the East Indies distilled liquids and used the resulting potions for medicinal purposes as early as B. About the time the Pilgrims ran out of beer at Plymouth Rock, these forms of concentrated alcohol were coming into favor in Europe. Distilled spirits made from fermented liquids were much more potent than the original liquids. Highland Scots and Irish distillers made whiskey. The French distilled wine to make brandy.
In Russia and Poland the distilled spirit was vodka. With increas- ing supplies of spirits and their high alcohol content, excessive drinking became aS national problem in several European countries. In England cheap gin became theNL Across the Atlantic Americans welcomed the new spirits, and soon rum became the most popular drink and New England became a leading manufacturer. George Washington put rum to political use when he ran for the Virginia legislature, giving each voter a barrel of rum, beer, wine, or hard cider.
By the end of the century whiskey was challenging rum in popularity. Seeing a potential new income source, the new U. By President Washington had a real problem on his hands. He mustered 12, troops and marched into Pennsylvania to avert the so-called Whis- key Rebellion.
Start with 65 percent rye, 30 percent corn, and 5 percent malted barley, each ground separately into a coarse meal. Mix the rye and corn. The Israelites of the Old Testament offered libations to Jehovah. The Romans honored Bacchus, god of wine see Figure 1. Christians used wine in the sacrament of Communion. Primitive peoples used fermented beverages in their sacred rites.
Victories, weddings, and other sacred and joyous occasions were celebrated with wine or ale. Camaraderie and fellowship were acknowledged with a loving cup, passed around the table and shared by all until it was emptied.
In the book Religion and Wine: Whether these early Americans were Baptists, Methodists, or Mormons, they permitted and enjoyed limited wine consumption as part of their worship. According to Fuller the United States did not have grape-juice Protestants a nickname for those who decried the alcohol content of wine and replaced it in ceremonies with grape juice until the late eighteenth century.
Interestingly this. His name later became a famous trademark for juice products. At that time attitudes about alcohol changed as some religious groups Fuller calls them ascetic Christians began to espouse the theory that the road to heaven required total self-discipline, including the denial of all earthly pleasures. Some groups feared that consuming alcohol would weaken sensibility, ethics, and moral values and diminish self-control in an age where many churches sought greater control over their members.
Conversely other religious groups felt just as strongly that rituals using wine could mediate Gods presence and foster greater enjoyment of what life had to offer. And so the rift widened. Since the s, the relationship between alcohol and religion has been the subject of debate and ambivalence. Almost two centuries later, in , California winemaker Robert Mondavi designed a new label for his wines that included a paragraph extolling the beverages longtime role in culture and religion.
In part it read, Wine has been with us since the beginning of civilization. It is a temperate, civilized, sacred, romantic mealtime beverage recommended in the Bible. Mondavi was prohibited from using this wording by the U. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. They must have liked it: They had a goddess of brewing, Ninkasi, and a hymn to her, which was the beer-making recipe put to music.
Their successors, the Babylonians, knew how to brew 20 different types of beer. The recipes were recorded by scribes as early as 6, B. The ancient Egyptians made note of Ramses III, the pharaoh whose annual sacrifice of about 30, gallons of beer appeased thirsty gods.
The Egyptians passed on their brewing knowledge to the Greeks and Romans. In each of these civilizations wine was considered the trendy beverage, and beer was brewed on the outer fringes of the empires, where wine ingredients were apparently more difficult to get. Thus, we find beer brewed on German soil for the first time around the year B.
The word beer comes from the ancient Latin word biber, a slang term for the beverage made by fermenting grain, adding hops for flavoring. In ancient times biber was considered lower class compared to ale, which was made in similar fashion but without the addition of hops. Hops became popular in Europe in the Middle Ages when it was discovered they served as a natural preservative; other herbs had been tried, sometimes with disastrous i.
Law, establishing for the first time that only barley, hops, and pure water could be used to make beer in that region. The use of yeast was not yet known. Today the European Union will permit importation of beers that are not brewed in accordance with the Beer Purity Lawbut only if this fact is clearly stated on the label.
Until the Middle Ages both beer-brewing and bread-baking were viewed largely as womens work. In ancient Babylon only priestesses made beer, connecting it with religion for the first time.
This connection became even stronger in Europe around A. Even during periods of fasting, monks were permitted to have beer. During this time period the brewing process was also fine-tuned for different purposes.
There were everyday, lower-alcohol beers, and others with higher alcohol content for special occasions. The modern term bridal joins the words bride and ale; a brides ale was brewed by a young womans family in preparation for wedding festivities.
Just about every civilization has made some type of beer, from whatever grain or root or plant was available in abundance. African tribes made their beer from millet; in Japan, the chief ingredient was rice; in Europe and North and South America, it was barley. The brew was hearty and filling, and provided calories and nutrients to fuel manual labor. The significance of beer in the average persons diet was demonstrated at the landing of the Mayflower at Plymouth, in what is now Massachusetts.
The Pilgrims were headed for Virginia, but the ship was running out of beer. So they were hasted ashore and made to drink water that the seamen might have more beer, wrote Governor Bradford later. Before the beverage preference in the United States was ale, which had been popular in England. It was made like beer, but fermented more quickly, at higher temperatures than beer. Beer production and sales played colorful parts in U.
There is speculation that the crude streets of New Amsterdam later New York City were first paved to help the horse-drawn beer wagons make better progress, which were so often stuck in the mud! Brewing became an aristocratic and popular business. Adams is credited with suggesting to Washington that he supply the Revolutionary Army with two quarts of beer per soldier, per day.
By the mid-nineteenth century, brewing dynasties that are still household names among todays beer drinkers had begun in the United States. In Detroit, Michigan, Bernard Stroh, from a beer-making family in Rhineland, Germany, opened his brewing company in In St. Louis, Missouri, Eberhard Anheuser downloadd a struggling brewery in His daughter married Adolphus Busch, a German immigrant whose family supplied grains and hops, and the mighty.
A dozen years later, Adolph Coors, another German immigrant from the Rhineland, started to brew beer in Colorado. The Germans brought with them a different brewing style that produced a lighter beer known as lager, which is paler and clearer in appearance than ale and has a drier flavor. Its name comes from a German word for storage or storehouse; it was routinely stored for several months in cold temperatures before serving.
Making lager-style beer required ice, so it was typically brewed in winter and stored until summer, when the demand was highest. Milwaukee emerged as the nations brewing center for the most practical reason: Ice was easily available from Lake Michigan, and there were plenty of local caves to store the beer. When refrigerators and icemakers were invented, lager could be brewed anytime, anyplace.
Heat was just as important as cold to the fast-growing beer-making industry. The French chemist Louis Pasteur discovered in the s that, like milk or cider, beer could be heated to sufficient temperature to kill harmful bacteria without diminishing the quality of the brew. This process of pasteurization enabled beer to be bottled for shipment.
Pasteur also experimented with live brewers yeast to prompt fermentation. Yeast had been around for many centuries and used for cooking and medicinal purposes. With the advent of reliable and sanitary methods of propagating yeast, the brewers ability to make consistent beers, batch after batch, was greatly improved. By the s stainless-steel barrels were replacing the old wooden ones in modern breweries. These metal barrels are considered to be more hygienic, and easier to fill and tap.
The Chinese and the peoples of the East Indies distilled liquids and used the resulting potions for medicinal purposes as early as B. About the time the Pilgrims ran out of beer at Plymouth Rock, these forms of concentrated alcohol were coming into favor in Europe. Distilled spirits made from fermented liquids were much more potent than the original liquids. The first ones were called aqua vitae water of life and used as medicines, but they were quickly assimilated into society as beverages.
Highland Scots and Irish distillers made whiskey. The French distilled wine to make brandy. A Dutch doctors experiments produced gin, which is alcohol flavored with the juniper berry. In Russia and Poland the distilled spirit was vodka. In the West Indies rum was made from sugarcane, while in Mexico, Spaniards distilled the Indians native drink to make mescal, the great-grandfather of todays tequila.
With increasing supplies of spirits and their high alcohol content, excessive drinking became a national problem in several European countries. In England cheap gin became the. They could and did get drunk for a penny, dead drunk for two pence, as one gin mill advertised. This particular mill, in the same advertisement, mentioned that it also provided free straw a bed of hay for sleeping it off.
Across the Atlantic Americans welcomed the new spirits, and soon rum became the most popular drink and New England became a leading manufacturer. George Washington put rum to political use when he ran for the Virginia legislature, giving each voter a barrel of rum, beer, wine, or hard cider. By the end of the century whiskey was challenging rum in popularity. Seeing a potential new income source, the new U.
Congress enacted the first tax on whiskey production in Many of the distillers, still trying to recover financially from the Revolutionary War, did not have much money and refused to pay the taxes.
By President Washington had a real problem on his hands. He mustered 12, troops and marched into Pennsylvania to avert the so-called Whiskey Rebellion. It ended without a shot being fired, but many angry distillers packed up and moved farther west to enjoy greater freedom and avoid future confrontations. When Washingtons presidency ended in , he was once again a forerunner in the distilling business, making his own rye from his own grain in his own stills at Mount Vernon, Virginia.
Heres his recipe, called a mash bill: Start with 65 percent rye, 30 percent corn, and 5 percent malted barley, each ground separately into a coarse meal. Mix the rye and corn. This was done in a wooden vessel called a hogshead. Add hot and cold water, and stick your hand into the mash to make sure it is not too hot.
If it does not burn, the temperature is just right. Add the barley and stir. Cool the mixture a bit more and add yeast. Let the mixture ferment for a few days. Pour the mixture into a copper still and let it boil. The alcohol will vaporize and condense, flowing out of a tube also known as a worm.
Collect the liquid and run it through the copper still one more time. Washington probably barreled his whiskey and sold it immediately. Today distillers would age it for a few years. A few of todays top U. The distillers who relocated to Tennessee and Kentucky after the Whiskey Rebellion inadvertently discovered a gold mine of sorts there: The spirit soon became known as bourbon since some of the first distillers set up shop in Bourbon County, Kentucky.
As the American West was settled, whiskey was easier to store. Distillation gained momentum as the process was refined. Rectification described more fully in Chapter 5 , or distilling a liquid more than once, yielded a much cleaner and almost percent pure spirits than previous efforts.
Before rectification was perfected, spirits contained flavor impurities. After rectification these items were also routinely added, but now, to enhance the flavor.
Some of todays grand liqueurs are the results of these early flavor concoctions. Cognac, for instance, was a pale, acidic French wine for which there was little public demanduntil it was concentrated in the s as an eau de vie, French for aqua vitae.
It became enormously popular and still is today. Wine was the most common ingredient in the medicines of ancient Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia, either taken by mouth or topically applied. The Roman scholar Pliny the Elder recommended a mixture of wine and rue a strongly scented, bitter-tasting shrub for just about any type of insect sting or animal bite.
Jewish Talmudic tradition maintained that impotence could be cured by heating and drinking a mixture of wine and ground saffron. The oddest prescription we found while researching this topic came from ancient Egypt: In addition to alcohols anesthetic properties, early physicians and folk healers recognized its ability to act as a disinfectant.
Remember old Western movies in which whiskey is guzzled by the cowboy before the country doctor removes the bullet from his legand then also poured on the open wound to sterilize it? The doctors of olden times couldnt see and didnt know about things like germs, singlecell yeasts, and antioxidants, but they did see cause-and-effect relationships.
Centuries ago people who drank alcohol not to excess, of course were healthier and hardier than those who did not due to its nutritional value. They lived longer and reproduced more. Armies were inoculated against disease on their foreign campaigns by mixing wine with the local water supply to kill bacteria.
Early beermakers realized that unless their brew fermented for a certain time and reached an alcohol level of at least 5 percent, it would contain detrimental microorganisms that produced off flavors and odors and might even be dangerous to drink. The curative compounds found in alcoholic beverages were not isolated and purified to be used on their own until the s. Today remnants of folk medicine still abound, from rubbing whiskey on a teething babys gums to ease pain, to sipping a glass of wine to aid digestion.
You will learn more about alcohol, health, and nutrition in Chapter 2. The clay tablets of Old Babylons King Hammurabi refer to alehouses and high-priced, watered-down beer.
A papyrus document from ancient Egypt warns, Do not get drunk in the taverns. Greek and Roman cities had taverns that served food as well as drink; excavations in Pompeii a Roman city of 20, have uncovered the remains of bars. In both Greece and Rome some taverns offered lodging for the night, or gambling and other amusements. After the fall of the Roman Empire, life in most of Europe became much more primitive. When next the taverns reappeared, they were alehouses along the trade routes, which provided a stable for the horses, a place to sleep, and sometimes a meal.
In England the public house, or pub, developed during Saxon times as a place where people gathered for fellowship and pleasure. An evergreen bush on a pole outside meant ale was served. These early logos were used because most people could not read. As time went on the tavern became a permanent institution all over Europe. There were many versions: Neighbors gathered at these establishments to exchange the latest news and gossip over a mug or a tankard.
In cities men of similar interests met for a round of drinks and good talk. In Londons Mermaid Tavern Shakespeare, dramatist and poet Ben Jonson, and other famous literary figures met regularly. Lawyers had their favorite taverns; students, theirs. Members of Parliament formed political clubs, each meeting in its favorite tavern for lively discussion of strategy.
Whatever its form, the tavern was a place to enjoy life, to socialize, to exchange ideas, and to be stimulated. The beverages intensified the pleasure, loosened the tongue, sparked the wit, or, as Socrates said, moistened the soul. When Europeans immigrated to America, they brought the tavern with them. It was considered essential to a towns welfare to have a place providing drink, lodging, and food.
In Massachusetts in the s, any town without a tavern was fined! Often the tavern was built near the church so that parishioners could warm up quickly after Sunday services held in unheated meetinghouses. A new town sometimes built its tavern before its church. As towns grew into cities and roads were built connecting them, taverns followed the roads. In some towns the old tavern is still standing. It was also in the taverns that the spirit of revolution was born, fed, and translated into action.
These were the rendezvous spots for rebels, where groups like the Sons of Liberty were formed and held their meetings. The Boston Tea Party. After the war Samuel Fraunces, its owner, renamed the tavern Fraunces Tavern to eliminate any reference to the Queen. It was here that General George Washington said good-bye to his fellow officers in When Washington became President, Fraunces became his chief steward.
When Americans pushed westward taverns sprang up along the routes west. As towns appeared the tavern was often the first building. Homes and merchants grew up around it.
By the middle s the modern American tavern was becoming a large-scale inn for the travelers and businesspeople of a nation on the move. At the same time drinking places without lodging were appearing. These kept the name tavern, while more elaborate inns adopted the term hotel. But the hotel kept its barroom; it was often a showplace, with a handsome mahogany bar and a welldressed bartender who might wear gold and diamonds. Louis, home of the Planters Punch.
By the turn of the century the successors to the early taverns had taken many forms. There were glittering hotels that served the wealthy in cities and resorts. The restaurant industry also made its appearance in the nineteenth century, serving wines and other beverages to enhance the diners pleasure. At first this movement went by the name Temperance and its target was ardent spirits distilled spirits , but proponents soon included beer and wine and expanded their goal from temperance, or moderation, to total prohibition.
In a century-long barrage of propaganda and moral fervor, the movement succeeded in convincing many Americans that drink of any kind led inevitably to sin and damnation. If you outlaw demon rum, they believed, sin would disappear and Utopia would naturally emerge.
Along with this belief went the notion that those engaged in making or selling alcoholic beverages were on the devils side of this battle between good and evil or, as it was also dubbed, Dry and Wet. The fervor was fed by the proliferation of saloons opened by competing breweries to push their products, many of them financed by money from abroad. By the late s there was a swinging-door saloon also called a joint on every corner in small towns and big cities.
These establishments often became unsavory places because there were far too many of them to survive on sales of beer and whiskey alone, so many became places of prostitution, gambling, and other illegal goingson. In Maine became the first state to pass its own prohibition law. By Kansas was the first state to pass a constitutional amendment that outlawed both the manufacture and sale of alcohol, although the new law was selectively enforced or often simply ignored. In Kansas, Carry A. Nation was a woman who decided enough was enough.
A combination of a frustrating marriage to an alcoholic and disgust at the lack of enforcement of the law led Nation to take her own kind of action. Calling herself a Home Defender, she waged a two-year, vigilante-style campaign, rallying women to show up at bars swinging bats and hatchetsand singing hymnsas they literally destroyed the places!
Her crusade made her the darling of national Prohibition advocates. By Nation addressed the Kansas legislature on behalf of families. She also went on the lecture circuit, billing herself as The Famous and Original Bar Room Smasher, although she was neither the first nor the last activist to employ violence for the cause see Figure 1.
While the Prohibition movement gave some women who could not yet vote their first taste of political activism, it was also an expression of religious and ethnic antagonisms. It pitted fundamentalist middle-Americans against the new German and Irish Catholic immigrants.
The brewers were German and the bartenders were Irish, and both brought with them cultures that included alcohol intake as a fact of everyday life. The movement also pitted small-town and rural America against what was perceived as big-city licentiousness. During World War I the Dry side won its battle.
The Eighteenth Amendment, passed during the wartime fever of patriotism and self-denial, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, and importation of intoxicating liquors in the United States and its territories. Ratified by all but two states, Connecticut and Rhode Island, it went into effect in Despite the zeal of its proponents, Prohibition had a short and unhappy life of not quite 14 years. As Kansans had discovered decades earlier, there was simply no way to enforce it.
While legal establishments were closing their doors, illegal speakeasies began opening theirs to those who could whisper the right password. Legal breweries and distilleries closed down, but illegal stills made liquor by the light of the moon in secret hideouts, hence the nickname moonshine.
Illegal spirits also were smuggled into the country from Canada and Mexico and from Rum Rows offshore; these were bootleg supply ships that sold to small, fast boats whose entrepreneurial captains made the run to shore. Some folks just decided to make their own beer, wine, and gin at home.
Prohibition affected the wine industry as dramatically as it did other alcoholic beverage producers. Many winery owners simply plowed their fields under and planted different crops.
A few received special licenses to make sacramental wines, or permits to make wines strictly for home use, only up to gallons per year.
Ironically, rather than decreasing drinking, Prohibition seemed almost to invite it: Flouting the law became, to some, the fashionable or, at least, enterprising thing to do.
After nine years of Prohibition New York City had 32, speakeasies, about twice as many as the number of pre-Prohibition saloons! To add to the problems of enforcement, organized crime took over the bootleg business in many cities. Gangsters quickly became rich, powerful, and seemingly immune to the law. The combination of racketeering, gang warfare, and bootlegging became a major national problem.
Everyone, even those who first vehemently supported it, agreed that things had gotten out of hand under Prohibition. In Congress passed the Twenty-first Amendment, repealing the Eighteenth.
Before Prohibition shut it down, beverage manufacturing had been the fifth largest industry in the United States. After passage of the Twenty-first Amendment, it made a quick comeback, despite stiff taxes and heavy regulation by federal and state governments. Today alcoholic beverages are an accepted part of the American scene, and have been for some time; the sale of liquor is legal in every state and the District of Columbia.
The serving of liquor in bars and restaurants is a normal part of the culture, and restaurant patrons expect to be able to download mixed drinks, beer, and wine with their food.
In fact restaurants that dont serve liquor often have a hard time competing. But the Wet versus Dry controversy never really ended.
Control of the issue was given to states, counties, towns, and precincts, resulting. The 21 Club had been a speakeasy, complete with passwords, secret knocks, and trick doors for its clientele.
The front entrance was guarded by tall, spiked gates, and there was a peephole in the door. In a cramped cellar below the main kitchen, a number of inch meat skewers hang on a hook. Insert one of the skewers into the correct hole in the wall, even today, and it unlocks a heavy door that protects a milliondollar inventory of fine winethe former site of the illegal bar.
Its backbar shelves were rigged to dump their liquor contents into the city sewer system at a moments notice! Similar secret taverns existed in just about every block of the downtown area. Walker was among the guests!
He called the police and had the agents cars towed away. Today the door still works and the area behind it is used as a wine cellar. Courtesy of the 21 Club. Even today this pattern mirrors our societys longstanding mixed feelings about alcohol use. Historically alcohol has always had its dark side as well as its benefits, from the drunkenness in the taverns of ancient Egypt, to the cheap gin consumed by the poor in eighteenth-century England, to the corner saloons of small-town America years ago.
Today the problems are just as critical, with drunk-driving accidents taking thousands of lives each year and some 10 percent of drinkers becoming alcohol-addicted.
What is it about alcohol that can moisten the soul, yet cause so much harm? We will discuss this issue at length in Chapter 2. Expert observers relate the drop to lifestyle changes for many busy Americans, many of whom now focus on fitness and preventive health care. Theyve stopped smoking, they exercise, they watch their weight and their cholesterol count, and they keep their heads clear during working hours. The three-Martini lunch is now a relic, replaced by bottled waters, flavored iced teas, and, on rare occasions, perhaps a single glass of wine.
These moderate drinkers limit their consumption to one or two drinks a day. At the same time they are very much interested in the quality of whatever drink they choose. When they do imbibe they tend to choose premium or super-premium liquors and wines. Drinking less but drinking better has become the norm. Perhaps the statistic that says the most about American lifestyle changes at the turn of the most recent century is the per capita consumption figure for bottled water: It has risen from 8.
In contrast Americans drank the highest amount of distilled spiritstwo gallons per person per yearback in the s. Since consumption figures have hovered between 1. When the fitness enthusiast does drink, he or she wants a light drink, one that is perceived to contain less alcohol and fewer calories. Some of these drinks do and some dont, as we will see.
But overall, sales of spirits continue to decline. White goods vodka, gin, tequila, and rum generally do better than brown goods bourbon, scotch, and other whiskies even though they all have similar alcohol contents. Wine enjoyed its largest upsurge in popularity in the s, reaching a high of 2. Wine is still popular and boasts a loyal following, but overall consumption has remained steady, at about 2 gallons per person per year since Despite jam-packed supermarket wine-section shelves and all kinds of exotic choices, the three best sellers continue to be Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and White Zinfandel.
Beer sales look very impressive when compared to wine and spirits. Americans consume a little more than 21 gallons of beer per person per year. However, this is a slump compared to the gallon-per-person figures of the s, and it is less than half the amount of soft drinks we consume annually. To slow sales erosion and attract health-conscious consumers, beer companies busily introduced some major product extensions in the s: Light beers now account for 47 percent of all beer sales in the United States.
Imported beers and beers from small, regional breweries, or microbreweries, have gained substantial followings, and theres a small but lively home-brewing hobbyist market. In most major cities youll find at least one beer-making store where home brewers can download equipment and supplies and get advice.
For a fee some allow you to brew on-site, let the beer age in their storage tanks, and then come back and bottle your own creation yourself! In recognition of customers who drink less, almost all restaurants offer wines by the glass, not just by the bottle. In Chapter 7, youll learn more about creating a workable wine list. They also do more to publicize their nonalcoholic offerings: The latter, alcohol-free versions of the Bloody Mary, Pina Colada, and other drinks, are mixed and served with the same care and flair as the bar specialties.
This does not mean that Martinis or Gin and Tonics are obsolete, or that fewer people are patronizing bars or ordering drinks with their meals. There is also strong interest in call brands, the slang term for premium brands that are asked for, or called for, by name.
Super-premium imports, such as single-malt scotches, Irish whiskeys, Cognac and Armagnac brandies, also have loyal followings. They are popular with customers who have developed a taste for and interest in downloading the best and are willing to pay more for it. They are also interested in experimenting with new brands and learning more about beverages.
In contrast most brown-goods customers are in the upper age groups and are comfortable with their reliable favorites, such as Scotch and Soda or Bourbon and Water. But be wary.
By the time you read this it all might have changed! New drinks will be invented, and new twists will be added to old favorites. Managing a bar means keeping your finger on the pulse of the market and making the changes necessary to stay ahead. Next, consider a few different types of beverage service, as well as the challenges associated with them. Though it is impossible to divide bars into just a few categoriesthere are almost as many variations as there are barscertain kinds have distinct characteristics and styles of service, and it may be revealing to see how they differ and what they have in common.
The Beverage-Only Bar The simplest kind of beverage enterprise is the bar that serves beverages alone, with no foodservice except snacks: This type of bar serves beer, wine, or mixed drinks, or any combination of the three, plus nonalcoholic beverages.
It might be a neighborhood gathering place, a way station. Business at such bars typically has a predictable flow: There might also be seasonal patterns. In airports and bus terminals, business is geared to daily, weekly, and seasonal travel patterns, and according to the time of day; light beverages are served during morning and afternoon, and heartier drinks are served as the working day ends.
Because only one type of product is sold and business is generally predictable, the operation of a beverage-only bar is relatively simple, from production, to staffing and downloading, to keeping track of the beverages, money, and profits. This type of bar also usually has a specific reason for success, perhaps its location, its reputation as a friendly place or for pouring well-made drinks , or simply its lack of competition; or perhaps it has just always been the place where everybody goes.
Often such bars thrive by being the same as they always were. Customers become sentimental about them and would not tolerate change.
That said, as the mood of the country changes, many neighborhood bars are adding food to their offerings. Hotel chains, such as Marriott, Radisson, and Hyatt, have phased out their cocktail-only lounges in favor of food and beverage combinations. The decision is practical: Some states do not allow beverage sales without food sales; other bar owners have decided that it is simply more responsible to offer people food if they will be drinking.
Master concessionaires, such as Host Marriott, now run more than 1, restaurants in 73 airports, and the trend has been to upgrade these facilities to pour more premium beverages, serve better food, partner with brewpubs see p. In short, beverage-only bars are definitely a minority today. Although some are highly profitable, most bars find that serving liquor alone is not enough to attract and keep customers.
So the majority of bars offer something else: In between are cocktail lounges and nightclubs with live-entertainment piano bars, country-and-western dancing, jazz or folk duos, or rousing rock-and-roll groups. This concept must include the decision to make room for a stage area, sound system, and dance floor. Having entertainment also means hiring someone knowledgeable to book the bands or entertainers whom people will want to see negotiating contracts at a fair but affordable price and always thinking ahead to the next fad or hottest music trend to attract the fickle public.
A concept that includes regular entertainment of any kind also includes the fixed costs and additional financial risk of hiring and paying the entertainers. In most cases the entertainment may draw the crowd, but it is the drinks that provide the profits. If there is a cover charge, which is an admission fee per person. The fortunes of this type of bar will rise and fall with the popularity of its entertainers, unless the place has something else going for it.
The success potential of this kind of establishment is much the same as the bar-only enterprise. Larger operations featuring out-of-town entertainers have a higher but riskier profit potential. It is likely to be either feast or famine. The bar gears up for each crowd with temporary extra help, a large investment in liquor inventory, and possibly extra security personnel. Weather, holidays, location, and weeknight versus weekend crowds all heavily impact this type of business.
Casinos are another enduring combination of entertainment and beverage service. Todays casinos might be run by a huge corporation or a Native American tribal council, and might include everything from big-name stage productions and professional boxing matches, to restaurants and nongambling arcades that attract families instead of adults only. Sports bars offer a different type of entertainment. In the mid-twentieth century, the term sports bar was a nickname for popular watering holes frequented by sports figures and sports writers, who bought each other drinks and traded stories and colorful quotes.
Today, however, you are more likely to have your conversation yelling at a big-screen television than at a sports columnist. Modern-day sports bars are designed for group viewing of popular sporting events. Equipped with large television screens or plenty of strategically placed smaller ones , the sports bar often sets a fixed price or cover charge to guarantee a good profit because customer turnover is so small see Figure 1.
Large sports bars serve a menu of full-course meals, and many take reservations in advance of popular eventsboxing matches, baseballs World Series, a Triple Crown horse racethat will draw a crowd.