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Sap Abap Handbook - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. SAP Transformation: From a Single−Product Company to a Global Business Solutions Company 11 Chapter 7: Introduction to the ABAP Workbench. Introduction ® Congratulations on downloading the SAP ABAP™ Handbook! This book features comprehensive content on the various concepts of the SAP system.
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For over thirty years, SAP technology has formed an indispensable part of many businessenterprises with respect to enterprise resource planning ERP. The pace of technological enhancementsis getting faster day by day, and this has been particularly true with SAP.
Today, most companies usingSAP software employ it to build applications that have more to do with cross-platform reliability. A few chapters of this book also provideimplementation-ready program code to help you understand different concepts. This book is ideal for beginners who intend to familiarize themselves with the SAP ABAP technologybecause it begins with the very basics and then moves on to more complex topics. An added advantageto this book is that it also suits professionals who are already familiar with SAP technology and want toenhance their skills.
Our sole intent has been to provide a book with in-depth and sufficient information so that you enjoyreading and learning from it. Happy reading! This bookbegins with the basics of SAP software and makes you familiar with its user interface. ConventionsThere are a few conventions followed in this book that need to be introduced. For example, the code inthis book is given in the form of code listings. The code with a listing number and caption appears asfollows: Listing 7.
Every figure contains a descriptive caption to enhance clarity, as follows: Figure 7. Adding code in the ABAP editor—change report screen 6. In this book, tables are placed immediately after their first callout. An example of a table is below. Table 7. Chapter 1: These applications represent various modules on the basis ofbusiness areas, such as finance, production and planning, and sales and distribution, and are jointlyexecuted to accomplish the overall business logic.
SAP integrates these modules by creating acentralized database for all the applications running in an organization. The SAP system was introduced as an Enterprise Resource Planning ERP software designed tocoordinate all the resources, information, and activities to automate business processes, such as orderfulfillment or billing.
Nowadays, the SAP system also helps you to know about the flow of informationamong all the processes of an organizations supply chain, from downloads to sales, including accountingand human resources.
Integration of different business modules is a key factor that separates SAP from other enterpriseapplications. Integration of business modules helps to connect various business modules, such asfinance, human resources, manufacturing, and sales and distribution, so that the data of these modulescan be easily accessed, shared, and maintained across an enterprise. Integration also ensures that achange made in one module is reflected automatically on the other modules, thereby keeping the dataupdated at all times.
In this chapter, you learn about SAP and its need in todays businesses. The chapter provides a comprehensive history of SAP,focusing on the circumstances that necessitated its development, and, finally, on how its introductionhelped to improve system performance and business efficiency. It also explores the various components of theapplication servers that are used in SAP, such as work processes, the dispatcher, and the gateway, anddescribes the structure and types of work processes.
You also learn how to dispatch a dialog step, aprocedure that helps a user to navigate from one screen to another in the SAP system, as well as twoimportant concepts: This chapter also explains the client-dependency feature of SAP.
The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the integrated environmentof SAP. An ERP system is used to integrate several data sources and processes, such asmanufacturing, control, and distribution of goods in an organization. This integration is achieved by usingvarious hardware and software components. An ERP system is primarily module-based, which impliesthat it consists of various modular software applications or modules.
A software module in an ERP systemautomates a specific business area or module of an enterprise, such as finance or sales and distribution. These software modules of an ERP system are linked to each other by a centralized database. A centralized database is used to store data related to all the modules of the business areas. Using acentralized database ensures that the data can be accessed, shared, and maintained easily. Combinedwith the module-based implementation, an ERP system improves the performance and efficiency ofbusiness processing.
Before the advent of the ERP system, each department of a company had its own customized automationmechanism. As a result, the business modules were not interconnected or integrated, and updating andsharing data across the business modules was a big problem. Lets use an example to understand thisconcept better. Suppose the finance and sales and distribution modules of an enterprise have theirrespective customized automation mechanisms.
In such a setup, if a sale is closed, its status would beupdated automatically in the sales and distribution module. However, the updated status of the sale of anitem would not be updated in the finance module automatically. Consequently, the revenue generatedfrom the sale of an item would need to be updated manually in the finance module, resulting in a greaterprobability of errors and an asynchronous business process.
The problem was fixed with the help of theintegration feature built into the ERP system. Another benefit of the ERP system is that it helps synchronize data and keep it updated. Ideally, an ERPsystem uses only a single, common database to store information related to various modules of anorganization, such as sales and distribution, production planning, and material management.
Despite the benefits of the ERP system, the system has certain drawbacks. Some of the major drawbacksof the ERP system are: The introduction ofSAP systems not only removed the preceding bottlenecks but also led to improved system performanceand business efficiency by integrating individual applications.
In other words, an SAP system ensuresdata consistency throughout the system, in addition to removing the drawbacks of the contemporary ERPsystems. Next, lets explain why and how an SAP system is introduced in business processing. The basic idea behind developing SAP wasthe need for standard application software that helps in real-time business processing.
The developmentprocess began in with five IBM employees: Here, R stands for real-time dataprocessing and 1 indicates single-tier architecture, which means that the three networking layers,Presentation, Application, and Database, on which the architecture of SAP depends, are implemented ona single system. SAP ensures efficient and synchronous communication among different businessmodules, such as sales and distribution, production planning, and material management, within anorganization. These modules communicate with each other so that any change made in one module iscommunicated instantly to the other modules, thereby ensuring effective transfer of information.
Note Time-sharing implies that multiple users can access an application concurrently; however, each user is unaware that the operating system is being accessed by other users. The three-tier architecture of the client-server model is preferred to the mainframe computingarchitecture as the standard in business software because a user can make changes or scale a particularlayer without making changes in the entire system.
Youcan configure the settings of these tables according to your requirements. With the passage of time, a business suite that would run on a single database was required. The It was usedoriginally to prepare reports, which enabled large corporations to build mainframe business applicationsfor material management and financial and management accounting. ABAP is one of the first programming languages to include the concept of logical databases, whichprovides a high level of abstraction from the centralized database of the SAP system.
Apart from theconcept of logical databases, you can also use Structured Query Language SQL statements to retrieveand manipulate data from the centralized database. To learn more about working with databases with thehelp of the SQL statements, refer to Chapter 8. For instance, besides theavailable reports and interfaces in the mySAP ERP system, you can create your own custom reports andinterfaces.
Similar to any other operating system, the SAP Basis component contains both low-level services, suchas memory management and database communication, and high-level tools, such as SAP Smart Formsand log viewers, for end-users and administrators.
You learn more about these concepts later in thisbook. The ABAP language provides the following features: Different users and programs can then access the data without copying it. Figure 1. The link betweenthese systems is established with the help of a network.
The runtime environment may be specific to the hardware, operating system, or database. The tasks of the Kernel and Basis services are as follows: Thesecomponents act as either clients or servers, based on their position and role in a network.
Software-oriented viewAs shown in Figure 1. For example, using these components, users can enter a request, to display the contents of a databasetable. The Presentation layer then passes the request to the Application server, which processes therequest and returns a result, which is then displayed to the user in the Presentation layer.
Note The servers in the Presentation layer have been referred to as Presentation servers in this chapter. This layer consists ofone or more Application servers and Message servers. Application servers are used to send userrequests from the Presentation server to the Database server and retrieve information from the Database Application servers are connected to Database servers with thehelp of the local area network.
However, a singleApplication server cannot handle the entire workload of the business logic on its own. Therefore, theworkload is distributed among multiple Application servers. Application serverThe Message server component of the Application layer shown in Figure 1. This component also contains information aboutApplication servers and the distribution of load among these servers. It uses this information to select anappropriate server when a user sends a request for processing.
The control of a program moves back and forth among the three layerswhen a user interacts with the program. When the control of the program is in the Presentation layer, theprogram is ready to accept input from the user, and during this time the Application layer becomesinactive for the specific program.
That is, any other application can use the Application layer during thistime. The procedure in which a new screen is presented before the user is known as a dialogstep. Dialog steps are processed in the Application layer, as shown in Figure 1. The centraldatabase system has two components, DBMS and the database itself.
Apart from this, the components of ABAP application programs, such as screendefinitions, menus, and function modules, are stored in a special section of the database, known asRepository, also known as Repository Objects. Note Master data is the core data, which is essential to execute the business logic. Data about customers, products, employees, materials, and suppliers are examples of master data. Transaction data refers to information about an event in a business process, such as generating orders, invoices, and payments.
Thesewindows are created by the Presentation layer. The Application layer consists of Application servers and Message servers.
Application serverscommunicate with the Presentation and Database layers. They also communicate with each otherthrough Message servers. Application servers consist of dispatchers and various work processes,discussed later in this chapter. Architecture of the application serverFigure 1.
An Application server contains multiple work processes that are used to run an application. Each work process uses two memory areas, the user context and the roll area.
The user context contains information regarding the user, and the roll area contains information about program execution. The requests received by Application servers are directed first to the dispatcher, which enrolls them to a dispatcher queue. The dispatcher then retrieves the requests from the queue on a first-in, first-out basis and allocates them to a free work process.
All work processes running in an Application server use shared memory. This memory is used to save the contexts data related to the current state of a running program or buffer data. Shared memory is also used to store various types of resources that a work process uses, such as programs and table content.
Each work process contains two software processors, the Screen processor andthe ABAP processor, and one database interface. A work process uses two special memory areaswhenever it processes a user request. This information consists of userauthorization as well as the names of currently running programs. The second memory area is known asthe roll area, which holds information about the current program pointer the location in which data of the The components of a work processAs shown in Figure 1.
From theprogramming point of view, user interaction is controlled by screens consisting of flow logic. The screenprocessor executes screen flow logic and also controls a large part of the user interaction. The ABAP processor not only processes the logic but also communicates with the databaseinterface to establish a connection between a work process and a database. The screen processorinforms the ABAP processor of the module of the screen flow logic that will be processed.
Components of the database interfaceAs shown in Figure 1. The Database-specific layer Figure 1. Now, lets describe the various types of work processes. Types of Work ProcessesAll work processes can be categorized into five basic types on the basis of the tasks they perform: In the Application server, the type of the work process The dispatcher starts a work process, anddepending on the type of work process, assigns tasks to it.
This means that you can distribute workprocess types to optimize the use of resources in the Application servers. Types of work processesIn Figure 1. Table 1.
Different types of work processes Open table as spreadsheetWork Description SettingsProcessDialog work Deals with requests to execute dialog The maximum response time of aprocess steps triggered by an active user.
The default time for a dialog work process is seconds. If the dialog work process does not respond in this time period, it is terminated. Update work Executes database update requests. An update work process parameter is used to control the is divided into two different modules, V1 number of update work processes of and V2.
The V1 module describes critical V2 modules. The V2 module describes less critical secondary changes. These are pure statistical updates, for example, Different types of work processes Open table as spreadsheetWork Description SettingsProcess calculating the sum of the values of certain parameters.
V1 modules have higher priority than the V2 modules. Background Executes the programs that run without The number of background workwork the involvement of the user, such as processes can be changed byprocess client copy and client transfer.
Usually, background work processes are used to perform jobs that take a long time to execute. Enqueue Handles the lock mechanism. Spool work Passes sequential data flows on to The parameter to set the number ofprocess printers. Note In Table 1. To learn more about the Command field, refer to Chapter 3. Now, lets discuss how dialog steps are executed by a work process.
Dispatching Dialog StepsThe dispatcher distributes the dialog steps among the various work processes on the Application server. Dispatching of dialog steps means navigating from one screen to another screen, where one screenaccepts a request from the user and the other screen displays the result of the request. Material on training module on time management - ppt download 5 Replies 1 Files. Complete training module - includes all minute details for implementing 83 Replies 25 Files.
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