SPACE TIMES • March/April BOOK REVIEW. Beyond the God Particle by Leon Lederman and Christopher Hill. Amherst, NY: Pro- metheus Books, Download THE GOD PARTICLE (PDF 28p) Download free online book chm pdf. The God particle by Leon M. Lederman; 6 editions; First published in ; Subjects: Constitution, books to read - mjc from Mary Jane Cahill.
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Chapter 1. 1. THE GOD. PARTICLE. If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? This book is devoted to one problem, a problem that has confounded. A zoo of new sub-atomic particles. A very thick book (updated every other year) is needed to describe the properties of all the observed sub-atomic particles. philosophy of the Quantum theory, you can refer to the following books: . 8 Lederman, Leon; Teresi, Dick, The God Particle, First Mariner Books, New York.
Fermions: Quarks and Leptons c. Bosons i. On July 4th, though, all of that changed. The potential discovery of the Higgs boson had been one of the principal reasons why physicists were so excited about the LHC; and therefore, within the scientific community the announcement was cause for a major celebration indeed. For most of the general public, however, while the announcement was certainly intriguing, there were many basic questions yet to be answered: Just what was the Higgs boson, and why had it been labeled the God particle? Why were physicists expecting to find it, and what did the discovery really mean?
Unfortunately, many scientists and the general public misconceive of theology as an anti-rational biblical literalism. It is hard for scientists and Christian biblical literalists to see the midway path between faith and reason as described by Newman. The distinction does not appear to be lost on Peter Higgs. Higgs argued that although he was not a believer, he thought science and religion were not incompatible.
But that's not the same thing as saying they're incompatible. It's just that I think some of the traditional reasons for belief, going back thousands of years, are rather undermined. Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 18 "But that doesn't end the whole thing. Anybody who is a convinced but not a dogmatic believer can continue to hold his belief.
It means I think you have to be rather more careful about the whole debate between science and religion than some people have been in the past.
The materialism of empirical science combined with the uncertainty and flux of fields in quantum mechanics is creating a movement of re-enchantment. Gibson also records efforts by those in the feminist movement to take on the myth of Gaia to counter the masculine ethos of subduing and destroying nature. The almost restored goddess lost her standing as even a metaphor and became at best a simile. Once again rational science had won out as the primary epistemological base for knowledge and maintained the secularization of the physical world.
In short a possible natural theology based on the earth goddess was not within the conceptual reach of the post- modern mind. In general terms, we can say that the reenchantment movement in its various forms never achieved the strength and solidity that a natural theology could have provided because it Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 20 espoused various types of pantheism and generally rejected or perhaps were unaware of the Christian tradition of Creatio ex Nihilo, Pastoral Implications Bearing witness to the Risen Christ in our time requires us to speak the language of science guided by the light of our faith in scripture and in tradition inspired by the Holy Spirit.
To do this we need to reassert the interaction of theology and science, to rekindle our awe of the physical universe and reflect on it through the lens of our faith. More than anything we are challenged to be present to people with and without faith as they reflect on the nature of the universe and the laws of physics and to be prepared to journey with them in silence, conversation, or research.
A renewed natural theology can have many pastoral applications including: 1 increased scientific and theological literacy, 2 a more informed and effective witness to the existence and providence of God, 3 a joyful encounter with creation as revelation and 4 a reverent stewardship of the planet at a time of human caused ecological crisis.
After modeling this behavior, we need to provide special learning and sharing activities dealing with faith and science in a wide variety of environments, including online distance education, home schooling programs, and youth and adult faith formation activities.
Building on our tradition, we can come to a renewed natural theology. Delio observes that Catholic theologians and Catholic theology in its present form may not to be up to the task. Some theologians have worked to connect these truths. Karl Rahner, S.
Another Jesuit priest, Bernard Lohergan, drew on the scientific method to develop a method of theology. Today, some Catholic theologians like John F. Haught engage the sciences to illuminate areas of systematic theology like divine action; others like Denis Edwards are trying to deepen theological insight on questions in ecology, such as climate change.
But on the whole, Catholic theology remains a product of Augustinian, Thomistic and Aristotelian ideas. Few Catholic theologians are grappling with the sciences on their own terms as a means of theological reflection.
Delio, While there is significant potential for this dialog and possible reconciliation in the Catholic university, it seems more likely to happen in universities that have departments of Catholic Studies or in Pastoral Studies programs, since the incentives for this type of study and cooperation are more operative in a non-theological environment.
In order for Catholic theologians to meet their professional obligations as scholars there is a strong cloistered mentality among even the most secular. It is more likely that the normal cycle of theological development will follow developments in the sensus fidelium — the consensus of the faithful, changes in liturgical usage, and grass roots ministry. Informed, Effective, Witness There are several possibilities to promote a renewed understanding of natural theology on the pastoral level with students on campuses, Newman Centers, and community service focused on ecological restoration.
It is of primary importance to make sure that Catholic youth and adults realize the complementarity of faith and reason and reflect on it in their own lives. There should be a variety of learning experiences led by scientists, researchers, artists, poets, philosophers, and theologians. A group of Christian Evangelicals, for example, have created an organization called Restoring Eden www. They are promoting the practice of Lectio Divina. Although they come from a sola scriptura tradition, the object of their Lectio Divina is the environment, the Book of Nature.
With the proper catechesis, most community service projects can be placed in a more sacramental diaconal light. Activities ranging from gardening, cleaning and renewing shorelines, forests, and wilderness can all be undertaken in a prayer of praise. Showing by word and deed Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 23 that social justice relies on environmental justice and sustainability is a major pastoral opportunity.
Creation as Revelation People of all ages should be encouraged to experience nature in all seasons outside of cities in a combination of prayerful and creative activities. Given the richness of the liturgical cycle and the Catholic tradition of saints and mystics such as St. Francis and Hildegaard of Bingen, there are many possibilities for the observance of traditional customs such as the blessing of the animals and fields.
Students of science from kindergarten to graduate school should be encouraged to see the study of the book of nature as a contemplative action and prayer in reverencing creation.
Specifically, students of all ages should be encouraged to reflect on their experiences and produce art, songs, and poetry to complement their empirical studies.
Reverent Stewardship of the Planet With the proper catechesis, most community service projects can be placed in a more sacramental, diaconal light.
Showing by word and deed Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 24 that social justice relies on environmental justice and sustainability is a major pastoral opportunity.
Persons involved in the professions and occupations related to the care of the planet such as farming, fishing, food processing and distribution should be encouraged to pray, reflect, and share their experiences of the sacred with the rest of the community. Members of the faith community who are engineers, architects, designers, and alternative energy experts or anyone interested in sustainable building and public policy should be encouraged to share the ways in which their activities are healing, protecting, and stewarding the environment.
Conclusion Perhaps the most important way in which we can revitalize natural theology and proclaim the Good News is to focus our liturgical, catechetical, artistic, and outreach to the scientific community by focusing on Creatio ex Nihilo in sign, symbol, and sacrament. We can do this through the sign of our care for the environment, the symbol of creation as revealed in the paradoxes of quantum physics, and the Catholic sacramental imagination that reveals the incandescence of the Divine goodness and freedom rippling through the mysteries of the Higgs field.
Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 25 References Flannery Ed. Northport, New York: Costello Publishing. Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church. Northport: Costello Publishing. Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church. What Is a Higgs Boson?
Retrieved from web. Natural Theology. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Theory of Everything. Retrieved from YouTube. Galvin Eds. I, pp. Minneapolis: Fortress. Delio, I.
Faith and the Cosmos. Dulles, A. Faith and Revelation. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. Fiorenza, F. Theology: Task and Methods. Gibson, J. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Goswami, A. Charlottesville, Virginia: Hampton Roads.
Heilprin, J. Technology Wire Story. Physicists confirm discovery of subatomic 'God particle'. San Jose Mercury News, pp. Jha, A. The Guardian.
The Trinitarian Mystery of God. Others get bogged down, and are therefore massive. The Higgs boson , the so-called "God Particle" of the subtitle in my edition of the book, would be a wiggle or wave in this field, like a sound wave in air, that betrays its existence.
Or not, if the theory is wrong. The Guardian's Ian Sample gives a gripping account of the hunt. I work on the Large Hadron Collider LHC , the machine at the heart of the search, so this much was familiar to me and it is explained well by Sample.
Newer to me was the story of how the theory, first proposed in , moved from being a curiosity of dubious relevance to the centre stage of fundamental physics today. The book opens in with a nervous Peter Higgs on his way to deliver seminars on his paper in the US. Sidney Coleman at Harvard told his students some idiot was coming to see them, "And you're going to tear him to shreds!
This is a particularly interesting process because it is essentially a kind of natural alchemy. Of still greater importance for our purposes, though, is that the phenomenon of beta-radioactivity implies that neutrons are composites loc. In other words, it was clear that neutrons are not in fact elementary particles at all, and that therefore, there was still some work to be done in order to discover just what neutrons are made of, and what the ultimate elementary particles are loc.
On the force front, though, even more work remained to be done. To begin with, it was now clear that there were four fundamental forces holding matter together: gravity, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. Gravity was needed to account for the attraction between bodies at long distances, while the other 3 forces were needed to explain the various interactions occurring within the atom itself loc.
Specifically, the electromagnetic force was needed in order to account for the interactions between charged particles within the atom loc.
The strong nuclear force was needed in order to account for the attraction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom loc. Finally, the weak nuclear force was needed in order to account for the behaviour of particles as they decay in the radioactive process loc. Einstein had, by then, shed much light on the force of gravity when he was able to extend his special theory of relativity which understands space and time as a unified entity known as space-time to the phenomenon of gravity, with his general theory of relativity.
Specifically, the general theory of relativity has it that gravity is actually an effect of the curvature of the space-time continuum. Still, the understanding of the electromagnetic force was divvied up between a myriad of narrow laws loc. As for the two nuclear forces, these were still very new and enigmatic. Bringing Quantum Mechanics to Force: Quantum Mechanics Meets Electromagnetism Given that quantum mechanics had already been used so successfully to help explain the behavior of electrons, this was the logical field for physicists to turn to in order to flesh out a fully unified theory of electromagnetism loc.
While arriving at such a theory was not without considerable difficulties and was interrupted by the Second World War [loc. This interaction is pictured below: The QED proved to be an extremely satisfying theory, according with experimental measurements to a remarkable degree. Bringing Quantum Mechanics to the Strong Nuclear Force Part I The success of quantum mechanics was now firmly established, and physicists eagerly turned to it to try and explain the strong nuclear force.
Two of the physicists who led the way in the attempt to apply quantum mechanics to crack the strong nuclear force were Chen Ning Yang and Robert Mills loc. Now, when quantum mechanics is applied to the strong force between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, it understands these particles as being essentially the same particle, but with two separate orientations just like spin-up and spin-down electrons are the same particle with two different orientations loc.
Both protons and neutrons are able to reverse their isospin orientation, and, by doing so, turn into the other loc. The fact that this process occurs makes the interaction between protons and neutrons more complex than the interactions involved in the electromagnetic force loc. Accordingly, the mathematics needed to accommodate this added complexity must itself be more complex. Specifically, in order to crack the electromagnetic force, physicists had turned to the mathematics from a simple symmetry group known as U 1.
One of the implications of this added complexity is that 3 field particles are needed in order to carry the strong nuclear force as opposed to the single field particle [the photon] involved in the electromagnetic force.
The third particle was neutral, like the photon, and was meant to account for proton-proton and neutron-neutron interactions in which there is no change in charge. Adding even more complexity to the issue is that these field particles were found to interact with one another whereas photons do not interact with one another loc.
Now, by using the mathematics from the SU 2 symmetry group mentioned above, Yang and Mills were able to come up with an initial quantum theory of the strong nuclear force.
However, given the added complexities involved with the strong force, it is perhaps no surprise that there were certain problems with the math at first. Actually, initial attempts at applying quantum mechanics to the electromagnetic force had produced similar infinite values, but in that case physicists were able to solve the infinities through a process called renormalization loc.
There was yet another major problem with the mathematics of the SU 2 theory however.
And this was that the math implied that the field particles involved in the strong force should be massless, like the photon loc. The Yang-Mills theory had looked promising, but ultimately the problems it encountered could not be solved at the time.
As a result, physicists now turned their attention to the weak nuclear force. Bringing Quantum Mechanics to the Weak Nuclear Force Part I While initial efforts to apply quantum mechanics to the strong nuclear force had run into problems, physicists recognized that the theory still held enormous potential, and it remained the best candidate to deal with the weak force.
As mentioned above, when Yang and Mills applied quantum mechanics to the problem of the strong nuclear force, they came to the conclusion that they needed 3 field particles in order to account for it.
Now, when Julian Schwinger confronted the problem of the weak nuclear force, he believed that 3 particles would also be needed here loc.
Actually, there was already evidence that there was in fact a strange connection between the weak nuclear force and electromagnetism, and Schwinger postulated that the neutral carrier of the weak force may in fact be none other than the photon of electromagnetism loc.
The new theory preserved the three force carriers first postulated by Schwinger, but replaced the photon with a new neutral carrier that Glashow called Z0. Unfortunately, though, Glashow ran into some of the same problems that Yang and Mills had. Back to Matter: New Elementary Particles While efforts to understand the weak and strong nuclear forces had run into a wall, physicists were having much better luck finding new matter particles.
As mentioned above, the neutron was only discovered in , and by this time it was already strongly suspected that it was not in fact an elementary particle, as its behavior in beta-radioactivity implied that it was made up of still more fundamental bits.
Following the discovery of the neutron, a flood of other particles were also discovered. While the discovery that new particles could be found simply by sending particle detectors up to the tops of mountains was certainly a great boon, the method did have a number of disadvantages.
Better than this by far is if you can create these high-energy particle collisions yourself in controlled conditions. And soon enough, physicists had developed the technology to do just this. Gradually, physicists found new and better ways to speed up particles, thus leading to particle collisions of ever higher energy levels.
Now, intuitively, we tend to think that smashing up particles at higher and higher speeds would yield smaller and smaller bits, until finally, when you reach speeds high enough, you would break a particle into all of the elementary particles there are. While some particles react this way to certain high-speed collisions loc.
Rather, high speed collisions can also excite particles to higher levels of energy, which then causes them to give off other particles, though they do not break down themselves loc. Now, elementary particles come in an array of different masses, and the heavier ones naturally decay into the smaller ones at reduced energy levels. In fact, the heavier particles only form where there are very high energy levels, such as when certain particles are smashed up at very high speeds either in cosmic rays, or in particle accelerators and colliders , or where temperatures are very high such as immediately after the big bang.
This helps explain why the vast majority of the matter that we see around us is made up of just 3 of the lightest elementary particles: up-quarks and down-quarks [which form protons and neutrons], and electrons—more on this below.
In any event, using both the mountain-top method, and the particle accelerator method, physicists were now able to discover a whole plethora of new matter particles—some of them elementary, and some of them not.
For instance, physicists began discovering leptons including the neutrino [loc. Of course, physicists at the time were not aware that the baryons and mesons that they were finding were composites, and this only confused the search for elementary particles even more. Physicists now know that baryons and mesons are in fact composites [known as hadrons]. You may wish to consult this appendix now in order to make more sense of the paragraph above. The information contained in the appendix also helps greatly with understanding the remainder of the article, for it offers a fully fleshed out understanding of what will now be revealed bit by bit.
Quirks, Quorks and Quarks Nevertheless, as physicists began trying to classify the new zoo of particles, it became clear that the baryons and mesons that they had found were made up of still more elementary bits loc. One of these theories, forwarded by the physicist Robert Serber, held that hadrons which include both baryons and mesons are made up of 3 elementary particles and their antiparticles loc. The theory carried some very quirky implications, though.
For one, it implied that these new elementary particles had fractional electric charges—a bizarre concept. Appalling indeed, a fractionally charged particle had never once been observed, and there was absolutely no empirical evidence to suggest that they might exist loc. Nevertheless, the fact that fractional charges had never been seen before did have a potential explanation. Gell-Mann eventually warmed up to the idea of quorks enough that he published a paper outlining quork theory in loc.
As outlandish as the theory was, it did have several pleasing strengths. For one, it was able to explain the characteristic of isospin in terms of the number of quarks making up a hadron. Still, there was as yet no empirical evidence that quarks did in fact exist loc. Furthermore, it was later found that the theory was at odds with the observed decay rate of pions loc. Eventually, however, it was discovered that both problems could be solved by way of modifying quark theory somewhat.
Specifically, each quark could come in blue, red or green loc. For example, a proton could be thought to consist of a blue up-quark, a red up-quark and a greed down-quark ub ur dg.
Before we address this issue, though, we need to get caught up on the force side of things, for while physicists were discovering new particles and developing quark theory, important progress was also being made on the force front—and we simply must catch up with this progress before going any further here. Back to Force: The Higgs Mechanism and the Higgs Field The last time we checked in on the force problem, we saw that physicists were having trouble marrying special relativity with quantum mechanics in their efforts to explain the strong and weak nuclear forces.
Specifically, physicists were finding that the theories implied that certain particles are massless, while these particles certainly appeared to have mass. Slowly but surely, though, a solution was developing that would solve the mass problem. To begin with, it dawned on physicist Yoichiro Nambu that if a charged field pervaded empty space that otherwise massless particles would acquire mass through their interaction with this charged field loc. The physicist Jeffrey Goldstone pointed out that while such a charged field would indeed lend mass to certain particles, the mathematics behind it implied that it would also create another massless particle!
Eventually, though, a solution to this problem was found. To begin with, it was realized by the physicist Philip Anderson that there should be a way to construe the mathematics of the theory in such a way that the massless particles that were created would simply cancel each other out loc.