tion about medicinal plants and their uses and are not intended as a seventy- five plants through their scientific, vernacular and common. Common Herbs and their Medicinal Uses. Introduction. Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. Populations, through their healers and autonomous use, have systems. Medicinal plants can be used in various forms according to different medical Disponível em: pdf/icse/v4n7/pdf>. Acesso.
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PDF | Sacred groves are a small area of forest protected by the local The details of the plants and their uses were collected from the local. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jan 1, , Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan and others published Medicinal Medicinal plants have a promising future because there are about. medicinal plant use for treating diseases and ailments is probably dates back medicinal plants and their uses during the field data collection. Thanks are.
About the Journal International Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal Plants is an online peer-reviewed open access journal which covers all the aspects of the current techniques and practices involved in the medicinal and aromatic plants. International Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal Plants also establishes a colloquium at national and international level by bringing the researchers across the globe under one roof who are involved in the medicinal plants research. Aim and Scope International Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal Plants aims to publish extensive range of high quality scientific research articles through Open Access by using this platform. The journal offers a time bound review which freely disseminates the current and latest research findings related to the techniques, cultivation, practice education and knowledge regarding the manufacturers of herbal medicines, medicinal and aromatic plants, etc. International Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal Plants publishes exceptionally high quality articles such as Research, Review, Perspective, Opinion, and short commentary in the respective fields.
Digitalis sp. Nandina domestica, Scutellaria baicalensis Hepatoprotective: Silybum marianum, Andrographis paniculata 5. The continued commercial exploitation of these plants has resulted in receding the population of many species in their natural habitat. Vacuum is likely to occur in the supply of raw plant materials that are used extensively by the pharmaceutical industry as well as the traditional practitioners.
Consequently, cultivation of these plants is urgently needed to ensure their availability to the industry as well as to people associated with traditional system of medicine. If timely steps are not taken for their conservation, cultivation and masspropagation, they may be lost from the natural vegetation for ever.
In situ conservation of these resources alone cannot meet the ever increasing demand of pharmaceutical industry. It is, therefore, inevitable to develop cultural practices and propagate these plants in Available online: Commercial cultivation will put a check on the continued exploitation from wild sources and serve as an effective means to conserve the rare floristic wealth and genetic diversity.
It is necessary to initiate systematic cultivation of medicinal plants in order to conserve biodiversity and protect endangered species. In the pharmaceutical industry, where the active medicinal principle cannot be synthesised economically, the product must be obtained from the cultivation of plants.
Systematic conservation and large scale cultivation of the concerned medicinal plants are thus of great importance. Efforts are also required to suggest appropriate cropping patterns for the incorporation of these plants into the conventional agricultural and forestry cropping systems.
Cultivation of this type of plants could only be promoted if there is a continuous demand for the raw materials. There are at least 35 major medicinal plants that can be cultivated in India and have established demand for their raw material or active principles in the international trade table. It is also necessary to develop genetically superior planting material for assured uniformity and desired quality and resort to organised cultivation to ensure the supply of raw material at growers end.
Hence, small scale processing units too have to be established in order that the farmer is assured of the sale of raw material. Thus, cultivation and processing should go hand in hand in rural areas. In almost all the traditional system of medicine, the quality control aspect has been considered from its inspection of itself Rishis, Viadyas and Hakims.
Unlike in olden times where traditional practitioners prepared and tested the qualities of herbal medicines, the problem faced today are these of economics of industrial scale production, shelf life and distribution to long distance.
These have necessiated develoment of modern and objective standards for evaluating the safety, quality and efficacy of these medicines. People are also becoming aware of the potency and side effect. To again public trust and to bring herbal product into mainstream of today health care system, the researchers, the manufacturer and the regulatory agencies mustapply rigorous scientific methodologies to ensure the quality and Lot-to- loy consisency of the traditional herbal product.
It is cardinal responsibility of the regulatory authorities to ensure that the consumer get the medication, which guarantee purity, safety, potency and efficacy. Herbal product has been enjoying among the Custers throughout the world. However, one of the customers throughout the world. The task of lying down standards for quality control of herbal crude and their formulation involes biological evaluation for a particluar Available online: To ensure safety and quality of the medicinal plant it is necessary to focus on all aspects of medicinal plant research from entho — pharmacology, utilization, isolation.
Quality contorl of the medicinal plant starts right at the source of the plant material. The phytochemical composition of the plant material and the reulting quality can vary due to several factors inclusing a number of environmental factors such as geogrsphical location, soil quality, temperature and rainfall etc.
Contamination by microbes, chemical agents such as pesticides and heavy metals as well as by insects and animal during any of these stages can also lead to poor quality of the finished products.
Standardization of all these factors is necessary to meet the current standards of quality, safety and efiicacy. Current Regulations for Standardization of Crude  Internationally several pharmacopoeias have provided monographs stating parameter and standard of many nerbs and some product out of these herbs.
Several Pharmacopoeias like: Allopathic, generally understood as modern medicine and based predominantly on ther principles of Western post- Enlightenment Science which has dominated the last three centuries. Classical traditional, referring to the documented and standardized great tradition systems of medicines including Ayurveda,siddhaUnaniAmchi and Homeopathy with different epistemological bases to that of Western Science. Since the therapeutical practices based almost entirely on the use of traditional Available online: Traditional uses of medicinal plants may also decline due to increasing commercialization of the medicinal plant sector and diversion of raw materials for sale in markets.
One study conducted in Arunchal Pradesh examined the use of Mishitita, a better root that is found at attitudes of between meters and meters in the districts of Dibang and Lohit. Over the last decade, local people have been selling the species for a very remunerative price of Rs. Table 2: Number and types of ailments treated by traditional system of medicine in India Traditional Carrier Subjects Number Mothers and house wife Home remedies Millons Traditional birth Attendants Normal deliveries , Herbal Healers Common ailments , Bone Setters orthopaedics 60, VishaVaidhyas Natural Poisons 60, This review is a map exercise to identify what, how, where,why and when of medicinal plants development in India, in order to supply a comprehensive understanding and overall picture to researchers, NGOs, health care workers, private companies, conservation and developmental agencies, policy makers and other interested stakeholders.
It is intended to provide a frameworks and knowledge base and an initial way forward, for those interested in India exploit her comparative advantage in the global market.
In most cases, little information in included regarding the number of people knowledge about the practice, in the demographic make-up of both the practitioners and the use of the medicines.
The logic of the practice as understood by the practitioners themselves, as well as important associated rituals apart from drug administration, for example methods of collecting and processing, are also rarely reported.
However most studies relating to folk and tribal medicine have concentrated more on the practice themselves, in isolation from the social and economic context in which they occur. Manuals and publications of ethanobotanical studies tend to be primarily lists of plants with brief descriptions of their methods of use. This will help to reduce the use of the chemical remedies which will be used when the disease is already present i. One of the remarkable features of the Chiang Mai meeting was the synergy and complementarily of efforts that emerged from the various disciplines present.
For example, conservationists learned about how health workers actually used medicinal plants; health policy-makers learned about the efforts of conservationists in maintaining areas of natural vegetation the ultimate source of their medicinal plants.
This synergy was not only very stimulating for the participants, but it also proved very productive and rewarding for the results of the meeting.
Table 3: Exporting — Importing Countries of Medicinal Plant Distribution of Medicinal Plants  Macro analysis of the distribution of medicinal plants show that they are distributed across diverse habitats and landscape elements. Macro studies show that a larger percentage of the known medicinal plant occur in the dry and most deciduous vegetation as comparted to the vergreen or temperate habitats. Analysis of habits of medicinal plants indicate that they are distributed cross various habitats.
One third are trees and an equal portion shrubs and the remaining one third herbs, grasses and climbers. A very small proportion of the meidicinal plants are lower plants like lichens, fern algae, etc. Majority of the medicinal plants are higher flowering plants.
While over species are used in production by industry, less than 20 species of plants are under commercial cultivation. This poses a definite threat to the genetic stocks and to the diversity of medicinal plants if biodiversity is not sustainably used. The range of products that could be obtained from medicinal plants is given in Figure Search for eternal health and longevity and to seek remedy to relieve pain and discomfort prompted the early man to explore his immediate natural surrounding and tried many plants, animal products and minerals and developed a variety of therapeutic agents.
Over millenia that followed the effective agents amongst them were selected by the process of trial, error, Available online: These efforts have gone in history by the name discovery of 'medicine'. The ancient civilization of India, China, Greece, Arab and other countries of the world developed their systems of medicine independent of each other but all of them were predominantly plant based. But the theoretical foundation and the insights and indepth understanding on the practice of medicine that we find in Ayurveda is much superior among organized ancient systems of medicine.
From history we learn that in the ancient times India was known as a place of rich natural resources, knowledge, wisdom and scholarship. It is perhaps the oldest BC among the organized traditional medicine.
It has gone through several stages of development in its long history. It spread with Vedic, Hindu and the Buddhist cultures and reached as far as Indonesia in the east and to the west it influenced the ancient Greek who developed a similar form of medicine. All Systems of Medicine in India functions through two streams. Social streams: Folk Stream: Comprising mostly the oral traditions practiced by the rural villages. LHT represent an autonomous community supported health management system which efficiently and effectively manages the primary health care of the Indian rural mass.
LHT is still alive and runs parallel to the state supported modern health care system; but its full potential is still not fully utilized and also that the great service it is rendering to the rural people go largely unnoticed because of the dominant western medicine. Classical stream: At the second level of traditional health care system are the scientific or classical systems of medicine. This comprises of the codified and organized medicinal wisdom with sophisticated theoretical foundations and philosophical explanations expressed in classical texts like xCharka Samhita', 'Sushruta samhita', 'Bhela samhita', and hundreds of other treatises including some in the regional languages covering treaties of all branches of medicine and Available online: Ayurveda was taught in the ancient universities in India and evolved, developed and flourished mostly among the urban centres and thus used to be a refined system of medicine.
Revival of Traditional Medicine Today we find a renewed interest in traditional medicine. During the past decade there has been an ever increasing demand especially from developed countries for more and more drugs from plant sources. This revival of interest in plant derived drugs is mainly due to the current widespread belief that green medicine' is safe and more dependable than the costly synthetic drug many of which have adverse side effects. This resurgence of interest in the plant based drugs have necessitated an increased demand of medicinal plants leading to overexploitation, unsustainable harvesting and finally to the virtual decimation of several valuable plant species in the wild.
Moreover, the habitat degradation due to increased human activities human settlements, agriculture and other developmental programmes , illegal trade in rare and endangered medicinal plants, and loss of regeneration potential of the degraded forests have further accelerated the current rate of extinction of plants particularly the medicinal plants. Medicinal Plants Wealth of India India is rich in medicinal plant diversity.
All known types of agroclimatic, ecologic and edaphis conditions are met within India. India is rich in all the three levels of biodiversity-such as species diversity, genetic diversity and habitat diversity.
There are about biomes representing different habitat diversity that gave rise to one of the richest centres in the world for plant genetic resources. The total number of flowering plant species although only 17,, the intraspecific variability found in them make it one of the highest in the world. Out of 17, plants, the classic systems of medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani make use of only about plants in various formulations. The classical traditions were prevalent in the past particularly in the urban elite society.
The village people have their own diverse systems of health management. While most of the common ailments were managed in the house by home remedies which included many species and condiments like pepper, ginger, turmeric, coriander, cumins, tamarind, fenagree, tulsi, etc. These are indeed community managed systems independent of official or government system and are generally known as Local health Tradition LHT.
The traditional village physicians of India are using about to species of plants for medicinal purpose. There is however no systematic, inventory and documentation about the folk remedies of India.
There is urgent need to document this fast disappearing precious knowledge system. The oral traditions of the villagers use about plant for medicinal purposes. India is also inhabited by a large number of tribal communities who also posses a precious and unique knowledge about the use of wild plants for treating human ailments. A survey conducted by the All India Coordinated Research Project on Ethnobiology AICRPE during the last decade recorded over species of wild plants used by the tribals and other traditional communities in India for treating various health problems.
Some interesting observations made in the study is the use of the same species found in different regions for the same ailments while some other species are used differentially. At present there are 87 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries extending over an area of about 1. Km, which is more than 4.
The National Parks stretch over 34, Sq. Km while the Sanctuaries cover an area of 1,15, Sq. A centrally sponsored scheme for the development of National Parks and Sanctuaries is in operation since VI Plan period.
The main objective of the scheme is to support protection and conservation measures in these areas with a view to mitigate any adverse impact of biotic pressure and allowing the areas to rejuvenate through habitat manipulation and infrastructure development.
Assistance is also provided for eco-development programmes around National Parks and Sanctuaries in order to achieve a ecologically sustainable economic development. These protected areas harbour large varieties of Available online: In-situ conservation programmes for medicinal plants in the National Parks and Sanctuaries could be taken up through Chief Wild Life Wardens.
The programme needs to be in consonance with the objectives of the national parks and Sanctuaries. The first phase of the programme was completed in 6 years and was extended into the second phase. The data recorded on Indian ethnobiology is invaluable giving a status on the tribal communities along with the information on the ethnobiological inventorisation and their documentation.
The study provides information on the wild plants used by the tribal communities as food, fodder etc. The study reveals the sustained usage of the local resources and the natural system of conservation.
However, this natural balance is being disturbed due to the intervention by other communities exploiting the medicinal plant resources. Data obtained from this study needs to be used in the process of planning and programme to conserve the rich biodiversity in our country.
The focus on the medicinal plants resources and further investigation in these areas may lead to concrete programme for the conservation of medicinal plants. Many countries rely on these medicinal plants for the health and well being of its population. But the market demand has led to an increased pressure on the natural resources that lend to the production of some of these plants.
The most serious proximate threats when extracting medicinal plants generally are habitat loss, habitat degradation, and over harvesting. Developing markets for natural products, particularly those that are harvested from the wild, can trigger a demand that cannot be met by available or legal supplies and demands a conservation initiative. So the local populations are not exploited, causing more damage to their resources.
Many times populations are taken advantage of for their resources and knowledge, which can often be for financial gain. Conservation of medicinal plants in its biocultural perspective not only implies conservation of biodiversity but also places an equal emphasis on conservation of cultural diversity.
Asia represents one of the most important centers of knowledge with regard to the use of plant species for treatment of various diseases.
It has been estimated that the Himalayan region harbors over 10, species of medicinal and aromatic plants, supporting the livelihoods of about million people living in the area.
High altitude medicinal plants provide quality products, and this is the reason why they are often the first choice of local users as immediate therapy and by pharmaceutical companies as precious ingredients. KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa community of Mnoqobokazi has high unemployment rates in the area and reliance on subsistence agriculture and wild produce is still high.
Socioeconomic factors such as low education levels and lack of access to western health care have been cited as important reasons for reliance on indigenous medicine in South Africa. Both villagers and healers Available online: Also there were ten people from Mnqobokazi, mainly women, who harvested plants on a commercial basis to conserve.
An interview with a conservation officer at the Wetland Park claimed that harvesting of medicinal plants was not a problem in this part as it was further north. In other parts of South Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, in which the bark and underground parts are mainly the parts utilized.
Because there is a high demand for such resources, the trees are becoming endangered and a lot of the collection is unrestricted. Regulations are now being placed on some of the resources that originally had been exploited and many schools and research facilities are working together to come up with new ways to foster their beloved trees and still manage to get what is needed from the trees as well by proposing the idea of substituting the bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant.
New research has shown that the isolation of prostratin, found in the bark of the Samoan mamala tree, from Homalanthus nutans has led to the extreme potency against HIV Both the National Cancer Institute and Brigham Young University have guaranteed to return to the Samoan people a significant portion of any royalties.
Paul Alan Cox, an American ethnobotanist, raised money based on awareness of environmental degradation due to logging, in order to protect the 30,acre km2 lowland forest of Falealupo village on the island of Savai'i. The Swedish Society for the Conservation of Nature established three new indigenously controlled preserves. Controlled preserves cause controversy because in traditional Polynesian societies, land, including the natural plant and animal populations, which occupied it, were viewed as sacred and an ancestral inheritance.
Western approaches to conservation on indigenous land and within an indigenous community must collaborate and understand indigenous knowledge systems in order to conserve cultural identity. The U. S National Park Service officials, the American Samoan Government, and the traditional chiefs matai and orators of the villages of Tafua had agreed to lease their lands for 50 years to the U.
The Tafua rain forest received funding from the Swedish International Development Authority, which was used to secure water supply, improve roads, and used for assistance in the development of village-based environmental tourism in Tafua. Knowledge-rich companies and researchers from the developed world have been attracted to the wealth of the poorer countries have in their biodiversity and the traditional knowledge systems.
Some argue that the access to such biodiversity and community knowledge by the industrially developed nations is necessary for the larger welfare of mankind as this advances knowledge and leads to new products which contribute to the well being of global consumers. The point is that this access to the resources of the poor does not benefit in any way, while their natural resources and intellectual property continues to be appropriated and exploited .
The World Health Organization WHO estimates that 80 percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care.
In comparison, herbal medicines can be grown from seed or gathered from nature for little or no cost. The use of, and search for, drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years.
Pharmacologists, microbiologists, botanists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and leads that could be developed for treatment of various diseases. Among the active compounds currently isolated from the higher plants and widely used in modern medicine today, 80 percent show a positive correlation between their modern therapeutic use and the traditional use of the plants from which they are derived.
More than two thirds of the world's plant species - at least 35, of which are estimated to have medicinal value - come from the developing countries. At least 7, medical compounds in the modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plants. In many medicinal and aromatic plants MAPs significant variations of plants characteristics have been ascertained with varying soil traits, and the selective recovery and subsequent release in food of certain elements have been demonstrated. Great attention must be Available online: All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities.
These phytochemicals are divided into 1 Primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which are found in all plants. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination.
It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs examples are insulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove. Toxic plants even have use in pharmaceutical development.
Plantssynthesize a bewildering variety of phytochemicals but most are derivatives of a few biochemical motifs: Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and are part of the group of natural products also called secondary metabolites.
Many alkaloids can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction. Many alkaloids are toxic to other organisms. They often have pharmacological effects and are used as medications, as recreational drugs, or in entheogenic rituals. Examples are the local anesthetic and stimulant cocaine; the psychedelic psilocin; the stimulant caffeine; nicotine; the analgesic morphine; the antibacterial berberine; the anticancer compound vincristine; the antihypertension agent reserpine; the cholinomimeric galatamine; the spasmolysis agent atropine; the vasodilator vincamine; the anti-arhythmia compound quinidine; the anti-asthma therapeutic ephedrine; and the antimalarial drug quinine.
Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans and other animals, they almost uniformly invoke a bitter taste. The anthocyanins that give grapes their purple color, the isoflavones, the phytoestrogens from soy and the tannins that give tea its astringency are phenolics.
Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. These can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis, which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. In animals and humans, poisons are often bound to sugar molecules as part of their elimination from the body.
An example is the cyanoglycosides in cherry pits that release toxins only when bitten by a herbivore. They are the major components of resin, and of turpentine produced from resin. The name "terpene" is derived from the word "turpentine". Terpenes are major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature.
Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene. When terpenes are modified chemically, such as by oxidation or rearrangement of the carbon skeleton, the resulting compounds are generally referred to as terpenoids. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers.
Essential oils are used widely as natural flavor additives for food, as fragrances in perfumery, and in traditional and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy. Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors used in food additives. Vitamin A is an example of a terpene. The fragrance of rose and lavender is due to monoterpenes. The carotenoids produce the reds, yellows and oranges of pumpkin, corn and tomatoes.
Many herbs have shown positive results in-vitro, animal model or small-scale clinical tests, while studies on some herbal treatments have found negative results. Recipes for the treatment of common ailments such as diarrhoea, constipation, hypertension, low sperm count, dysentery and weak penile erection, piles, coated tongue, menstrual disorders, bronchial asthma, leucorrhoea and fevers are given by the traditional medicine practitioners very effectively.
Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of herbal medicine; however, there is still a significant lack of research data in this field. Importance of some herbs with their medicinal values Herbs such as black pepper, cinnamon, myrrh, aloe, sandalwood, ginseng, red clover, burdock, bayberry, and safflower are used to heal wounds, sores and boils. These herbs are easy to grow, look good, taste and smell amazing and many of them are magnets for bees and butterflies.
Many herbs are used as blood purifiers to alter or change a long-standing condition by eliminating the metabolic toxins. These are also known as 'blood cleansers'. Certain herbs improve the immunity of the person, thereby reducing conditions such as fever. Some herbs are also having antibiotic properties. Turmeric is useful in inhibiting the growth of germs, harmful microbes and bacteria. Turmeric is widely used as a home remedy to heal cut and wounds.
To reduce fever and the production of heat caused by the condition, certain antipyretic herbs such as Chirayta, black pepper, sandal wood and safflower are recommended by traditional Indian medicine practitioners.
Sandalwood and Cinnamon are great astringents apart from being aromatic. Sandalwood is especially used in arresting the discharge of blood, mucus etc. Some herbs are used to neutralize the acid produced by the stomach. Herbs such as marshmallow root and leaf.
They serve as antacids. The healthy gastric acid needed for proper digestion is retained by such herbs. Indian sages were known to have remedies from plants which act against poisons from animals and snake bites.
Herbs like Cardamom and Coriander are renowned for their appetizing qualities. Other aromatic herbs such as peppermint, cloves and turmeric add a pleasant aroma to the food, thereby increasing the taste of the meal. Some herbs like aloe, sandalwood, turmeric, sheetraj hindi and khare khasak are commonly used as antiseptic and are very high in their medicinal values. Ginger and cloves are used in certain cough syrups. They are known for their expectorant property, which promotes the thinning and ejection of mucus from the lungs, trachea and bronchi.
Eucalyptus, Cardamom, Wild cherry and cloves are also expectorants. Therefore, they are used as cardiac stimulants. Certain medicinal herbs have disinfectant property, which destroys disease causing germs.
They also inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes that cause communicable diseases. Herbal medicine practitioners recommend calmative herbs, which provide a soothing effect to the body. They are often used as sedatives. Certain aromatic plants such as Aloe, Golden seal, Barberry and Chirayata are used as mild tonics. The bitter taste of such plants reduces toxins in blood.
They are helpful in destroying infection as well. Certain herbs are used as stimulants to increase the activity of a system or an organ, for example herbs like Cayenne Lal Mirch, Myrrh, Camphor and Guggul. A wide variety of herbs including Giloe, Golden seal, Aloe and Barberry are used as tonics. They can also be nutritive and rejuvenate a healthy as well as diseased individual.
Honey, turmeric, marshmallow and liquorice can effectively treat a fresh cut and wound. They are termed as vulnerary herbs. Conclusion As our lifestyle is now getting techno-savvy, we are moving away from nature. While we cannot escape from nature because we are part of nature. As herbs are natural products they are free from side effects, they are comparatively safe, eco-friendly and locally available. Traditionally there are lot of herbs used for the ailments related to different seasons.