تحميل كتب كابلان نسخة التوليد و النسائية: dancindonna.info cn6lr14fee8u. USMLE Step 2 CK Lecture Notes Obstetrics/Gynecology By Kaplan Medical. USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Pharmacology - #usmle #books # pdf #. Discover ideas about Obstetrics And Gynaecology. FREE MEDICAL BOOKS: Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology - #usmle #books #pdf # .
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The only official Kaplan Lecture Notes for USMLE Step 2 CK cover the comprehensive USMLE Step 2 CK Lecture Notes Internal Medicine ( ).pdf USMLE Step 2 CK Lecture Notes Obstetrics and Gynecology ( ).pdf. Download Step-Up to Obstetrics and Gynecology PDF Free. By. Admin. Step-Up to Obstetrics and Gynecology. Step-Up to Obstetrics and Gynecology is an effective high-yield review of obstetrics Kaplan Video Lectures February 21, KWH. ([PDF]) USMLE Step 2 Ck Lecture Notes Obstetrics/Gynecology ( USMLE Prep) pdf by Kaplan Medical. Detail ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○.
Updated annually by Kaplan's all-star faculty. Highly illustrated. Includes color images and tables. Packed with bridges between specialities and basic science. Organized in outline format with high-yield summary boxes.
Zu-hua Gao. Amanda Mularz. Christopher Coughlin. Gynaecology by Ten Teachers. Louise Kenny. Jason Abbott. Speedy Publishing.
Neurosurgery Rounds: Questions and Answers. Remi Nader. Schaum's Outline of Pathophysiology. Tom Betsy. Obstetrics by Ten Teachers. Louise C. Pocket Pediatrics. Paritosh Prasad. Critical Care Secrets E-Book. Polly E.
Medical Education: Theory and Practice E-Book. Tim Dornan. Kenneth D. Janesh Gupta. Netter's Clinical Anatomy E-Book. John T. Vinay Kumar. Mims' Medical Microbiology E-Book. Richard Goering. Study Guide for Human Anatomy and Physiology: Evelyn J Biluk. Andrea Pilkington. Matthew Kaufman. Gynaecology Illustrated E-Book. Catrina Bain. Avoiding Common Obstetrics and Gynecology Errors. Carla P. Internal Medicine, Psychiatry, Ethics.
Kaplan Medical. Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Barry O'Reilly. Prep Manual for Undergraduates - E-book. Muralidhar drmvpai yahoo. Beckmann and Ling's Obstetrics and Gynecology. Robert Casanova. Amanda Jones. Basic Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology: Austin Ugwumadu.
Johns Hopkins Handbook of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Linda M. Allan R. Thiam Chye Tan.
Urvashi Prasad Jha. Teach Don't Tell: Effective Strategies for Training Midwives. Aine Alam. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long.
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Highly illustrated. Includes color images and tables. Packed with bridges between specialities and basic science. Organized in outline format with high-yield summary boxes. In this series View all. Skip this list. Ratings and Book Reviews 0 0 star ratings 0 reviews. Overall rating No ratings yet 0. Coagulation factors: Gastric motility decreases and emptying time increases from the progesterone effect on smooth muscle.
This increase in stomach residual volume, along with upward displacement of intraabdominal contents by the gravid uterus, predisposes to aspiration pneumonia with general anesthesia at delivery.
Colonic motility decreases and transit time increases from the progesterone effect on smooth muscle. This predisposes to increased colonic fluid absorption, resulting in constipation. It is the only lung volume that does not decrease with pregnancy. RR remains unchanged, with Vt increasing steadily throughout the pregnancy into the third trimester. This is largely due to the upward displacement of intraabdominal contents against the diaphragm by the gravid uterus.
The rise in Vt produces a respiratory alkalosis,with a decrease in Pco2 from 40 to 30 mm Hg and an increase in pH from 7.
An increased renal loss of bicarbonate helps compensate, resulting in an alkalotic urine. The kidneysincrease in size 1. Pituitary size increases up to threefold due to lactotroph hyperplasia and hypertrophy, making it susceptible to ischemic injury Sheehan syndrome from postpartum hypotension. Adrenal gland size is unchanged, but production of cortisol increases two- to threefold. The breast is made of lobes of glandular tissue, with associated ducts for transfer of milk to the exterior and supportive fibrous and fatty tissue.
On average, there are 15—20 lobes in each breast, arranged roughly in a wheel-spoke pattern emanating from the nipple area. The distribution of the lobes, however, is not even. There is a preponderance of glandular tissue in the upper outer portion of the breast responsible for the tenderness in this region that many women experience prior to their menstrual cycle.
The 15—20 lobes are further divided into lobules containing alveoli small saclike features of secretory cells with smaller ducts that conduct milk to larger ducts and finally to a reservoir that lies just under the nipple.
In the nonpregnant, nonlactating breast, the alveoli are small. During pregnancy, the alveoli enlarge; during lactation, the cells secrete milk substances proteins and lipids. With the release of oxytocin, the muscular cells surrounding the alveoli contract to express the milk during lactation. Ligaments called Cooper ligaments, which keep the breasts in their characteristic shape and position, support breast tissue.
In the elderly or during pregnancy, these ligaments become loose or stretched, respectively, and the breasts sag. The lymphatic system drains excess fluid from the tissues of the breast into the axillary nodes.
Lymph nodes along the pathway of drainage screen for foreign bodies such as bacteria or viruses. Reproductive hormones are important in the development of the breast in puberty and in lactation. Progesterone, released from the corpus luteum, stimulates the development of milk-producing alveolar cells. Prolactin, released from the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates milk production. Oxytocin, released from the posterior pituitary in response to suckling, causes milk ejection from the lactating breast.
The breasts become fully developed under the influence of estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin during pregnancy. Prolactin causes the production of milk, and oxytocin release via the suckling reflex causes the contraction of smooth-muscle cells in the ducts to eject the milk from the nipple. The first secretion of the mammary gland after delivery is colostrum.
It contains more protein and less fat than subsequent milk, and contains IgA antibodies which impart some passiveimmunity to the infant. Most often it takes one to three days after delivery for milk production to reach appreciable levels. Estrogen antagonizes the positive effect of prolactin on milk production. The physical stimulation of suckling causes the release of oxytocin and stimulates prolactin secretion, causing more milk production.
Postconception week 1: Week 1 begins with fertilization of the egg and ends with implantation of the blastocyst onto the endometrial surface. Fertilization usually occurs in the distal part of the oviduct. The egg is capable of being fertilized for 12—24 hours.
The sperm is capable of fertilizing for 24—48 hours. Week 1 can be divided into 2 phases: The intratubal phase extends through the first half of the first week.
It begins at conception day 0 and ends with the entry of the morula into the uterine cavity day 3. The conceptus is traveling down the oviduct as it passes through the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-cell stages.
The intrauterine phase begins with entry of the morula into the uterus day 3 and ends with implantation of the blastocyst onto the endometrial surface day 6. During this time the morula differentiates into a hollow ball of cells. The outer layer will become the trophoblast or placentae, and the inner cell mass will become the embryo.
Postconception week 2: These layers will eventually give rise to the 3 primordial germ layers. Another significant event is the invasion of the maternal sinusoids by the syncytiotrophoblast. Postconception week 3: These layers will give rise to the major organs and organ systems. Postconception weeks 4—8 period of major teratogenic risk: This duct is present in all early embryos and is the primordium of the female internal reproductive system.
No hormonal stimulation is required. In females, without MIF, development continues to form the fallopian tubes, corpus of the uterus, cervix, and proximal vagina. No hormonal stimulation is needed for differentiation of the external genitalia into labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and distal vagina. This duct is also present in all early embryos and is the primordium of the male internal reproductive system.
Testosterone stimulation is required for development to continue to form the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, epididymis, and efferent ducts. This is present in males from testicular sources. In females, without androgen stimulation, the Wolffian duct undergoes regression. If a genetic male has an absence of androgen receptors, the Wolffian duct will also undergo regression.
Dihydrotestosterone DHT stimulation is needed for differentiation of the external genitalia into a penis and scrotum. If a genetic male has an absence of androgen receptors, external genitalia will differentiate in a female direction. A year-old woman undergoes a barium enema for rectal bleeding on February 1, with estimated radiation dose of 4 rad. Her last menstrual period LMP was January 1 and she has day cycles.
She was not using any contraception. On March 15, a urine pregnancy test is positive. She inquires about the risk to her fetus of teratogenic injury. A teratogen is any agent that disturbs normal fetal development and affects subsequent function. The nature of the agent, as well as its timing and duration after conception, is critical. There are critical periods of susceptibility with each teratogenic agent and with each organ system. From conception to end of secondweek: This action might not be possible to undo.
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Save For Later. Create a List. Read on the Scribd mobile app Download the free Scribd mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. Kaplan Publishing Released: Oct 2, ISBN: Obstetrics Chapter 1: Abnormal Tracings Chapter Gynecology Chapter 1: