How to Master CCNP Route by Rene Molenaar, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. How to master CCNP TSHOOT shows you, step-by-step, everything th BGP and everything else you learned in CCNA and CCNP ROUTE & SWITCH so far. Garry Baker February 10, Book Details. How to Master CCNP Route. Rene Molenaar. EBook PDF via instant download with watermark. http://gns3vault.
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René Molenaar is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. How to master CCNP ROUTE GNS3Vault. com – René Molenaar Page 3 of . although René Molenaar cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of also love routing & switching because it's one of those fields in IT that doesn't. although René Molenaar cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. also love routing & switching because it‟s one of those fields in IT that doesn‟t.
Summary This book seems to follow suit with the goal of that site, to understand the what and why behind the configuration commands needed to make networks work. The primary purpose of the book is to help in passing the CCNP Route exam , which is pretty clear from the title. These topics have introduction chapters that bring you back up to speed with a CCNA refresh, then concurrent chapters that go into further CCNP level detail. Conclusion I downloadd this book after have visited gns3vault. I am always looking for reference materials that bring a new and different view on old topics that get stale during my studies. One small complaint is the topology diagrams use hostnames such as John, Jack, and KingKong instead of R1, R2, and R3 which is my personal preference and to me creates a better flow when troubleshooting.
Hello packets are sent between routers in order to form adjacencies. As you can see router Lizzy is sending 3 hello packets meant for router Jack, John and Lizzy. Sending 3 packets on the same link is not very useful so instead of doing this EIGRP will send hello packets by using multicast on a multi-access network like Ethernet. As soon as you send hello packets and receive them your EIGRP routers will try to form the neighbor adjacency.
Update packets have routing information and are sent reliable to whatever router that requires this information. Update packets can be sent to a single neighbor using unicast or to a group of neighbors using multicast.
What happens is that your router will send query packets to its neighbors asking them if they have information about this particular network.
Reply packets are used in response to the query packets and are reliable. ACK packets are used to acknowledge the receipt of update, query and replay packets.
ACK packets are sent by using unicast. The first one is the neighbor table and this is where EIGRP stores all information of directly connected neighbors. After we have become neighbors routers will exchange routing information which is stored in the EIGRP topology table. As soon as we enable it for the interface they will start sending hello packets. In this example router Jack is the first router to send a hello packet.
As soon as router John receives the hello packet from Jack it will respond by sending update packets that contain all the routing information that it has in its routing table. The only routes that are not sent on this interface are the one that John learned on this interface because of split-horizon. At this moment there is still no neighbor adjacency until router John has sent a hello packet to Jack.
Router Jack is of course not the only one sending hello packets. As soon as router John sends a hello packet to Jack we can continue to setup a neighbor adjacency.
After both routers have exchanged hello packets we will establish the neighbor adjacency. Router John is anxious to receive routing information as well so Jack will send update packets to John who will save this information in its EIGRP topology table. After receiving the update packets router John will send an ACK back to Jack to let him know everything is ok.
As soon as both routers have exchanged routing information they will select the best paths to each destination and copy those to the routing table. My goal is to have full connectivity and here are the configurations: Jack config router eigrp 1 Jack config-router no auto-summary Jack config-router network 1.
In this case that means that 1. Network 1. Does it matter? Yes and no. It will work but also means that every interface that falls within the 1. Network If you are working on a lab and are lazy like me you can also type in network 0. Use the passive interface command. John config router eigrp 1 John config-router passive-interface loopback 0 This will advertise the 2. You can also configure passiveinterface default and only activate the interfaces you want to run EIGRP on.
John is also receiving an update packet from router Jack and afterwards sending its own update packet. If you want to see the whole process we can combine some debugging. Show ip protocols is a very useful and powerful command in your CCNP arsenal. It will show you for which networks you are routing, passive interfaces and the administrative distance. See the external administrative distance of ?
As you can see we have one neighbor What else do we find here? Your first neighbor will have a value of 0, the second neighbor a value of 1 and so on. Once this timer expires we will drop the neighbor adjacency.
The default holddown timer is 15 seconds. Ideally you want this number to be 0 otherwise it might be an indication of congestion on the network.
It will go into active mode and send query packets to ALL its neighbors asking them if they know how to reach this network.
By setting the reply status flag it will do this. More on this later! In this case there is only one way to get to the destination. The second value is the advertised distance. Does this make sense to you?
Understanding the EIGRP topology table is very important for troubleshooting or when we start playing with load balancing. What do we find here? In the examples above you could see that the feasible and advertise distance values are a bit higher which makes them annoying to work with. If you look at it you can see that it incorporates bandwidth, load, delay and reliability and you can see K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5 values.
These K values are only numbers to scale numbers in the metric calculation. Only K1 and K3 are enabled by default. The example above only shows part of the output.
You can see the bandwidth is Kbit which is a Mbit interface. Cisco IOS will have default delay values for the different types of interface. A FastEthernet interface has a default delay of usec.
If you are having issues this value will decrease. This means that only bandwidth and delay are used in the formula. Why not? Because loading and reliability are dynamic values and they can change over time. We want routing protocols to be nice and quiet and only base their routing decisions on static values like bandwidth and delay. As you can see there is an upper path with some T1 interfaces and a 64kbps link. The path below has two kbps links.
A T1 interface has a bandwidth of 1. Does this make your head spin? The important lesson I wanted to show you here is that EIGRP uses the slowest bandwidth in the path and the sum of delays. No need to do any manual calculations on the exam! Feel like playing with the metrics and some load balancing?
Note the EIGRP will summarize to the classful network by default. So what happens with router Hearts? It thinks it can reach the Obviously this is going to cause problems.
Spade config router eigrp 1 Spade config-router no auto-summary Clubs config router eigrp 1 Clubs config-router no auto-summary Type in the no auto-summary command to make sure EIGRP behaves classless and sends the subnet mask along. In the picture below we have router Jack and John, router Jack has the following networks configured: You need to specify the AS number and the subnet mask to send along the network.
We reduced its routing table from 4 entries to just 1 entry. Look at router Jack above and check out the last entry. Our Null0 interface is like a black hole sucking up packets never to return again…ouch! Let me show you another example. If you look at the example above I made a change.
I created the summary This is a C- example! You have to remove the old one yourself. So what happens when we send a ping towards an IP address within the John ping Jack config access-list permit ip any Debug ip packet is VERY useful but you need to use an access-list otherwise you drown in information. What if there was a 3rd router in our topology and router Jack has a default route pointing to this router?
We will end up forwarding packets for Internet Jack John Route Advertisement: Router John has another interface connected to the Internet.
Router John has a default Route to the Internet. Since we want Internet access on router Jack as well we configure a default route on router Jack towards router John. Router John has the Router John sends an IP packet to X network in its routing table but does have a default route. Router Jack will forward the IP packet to router John.
Uh-oh…we have a routing loop! Thanks to our Null0 interface this is not going to happen, watch this: John ping Our entry with Packets will be forwarded to Null0 and are gone! No more routing loops… Creating summaries has one more advantage besides reducing the size of routing tables. You will also have less routing updates on your network.
The whole network is updating itself because just a single interface went down. Summaries can help us here. Summary: All the routers on the right side have Did you enjoy this? We only use them within our autonomous system but they are not scalable to use for something as large as the Internet. There is only one routing protocol we currently use on the Internet which is BGP. Our ISP is making sure we have Internet access.
This scenario is excellent when you only have clients that need Internet access. We could use port forwarding and forward the correct ports to these servers so we still only need a single IP address. Another option would be to get more public IP addresses from our ISP and use these to configure the different servers.
We could add another router at the customer side and connect it to the ISP.
You can use the primary link for all traffic and have another link as the backup. This will make sure that your IGP sends all traffic to the primary link. Once the link fails your IGP will make sure all traffic is sent down the backup link.
Let me ask you something to think about…can we do any load balancing across those two links? Your IGP will send all traffic down the primary link and nothing down the backup link unless there is a failure. What about our Customer network?
We still have those 2 servers that need to be reachable from the Internet. An AS is a collection of networks under a single administrative domain. The Internet is nothing more but a bunch of autonomous systems that are connected to each other.
For routing between the different autonomous systems we use an EGP external gateway protocol. How do we get an autonomous system number? Autonomous system numbers are bit which means we have AS 1 up to Since January we can also use bit numbers for autonomous systems.
External BGP is to exchange routing information between the different autonomous systems.
We can reach the internet through both ISPs. The customer router will advertise its We have connectivity because of the default routes but this can lead to sub-optimal routing. I give only three stars for the price and the lack of detail. I'll update the review after I've taken the exam, with more details about the lack of useful throubleshooting topics.
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