A grammar of the Kannada language in English: comprising the three dialects of the PublisherMangalore: Basel Mission Book and Tract Depository. Modern Kannada Grammar [S N Sridhar] on dancindonna.info Language: English; ISBN ; ISBN ; Product Dimensions: x. Learn Kannada Grammar/Vyakarana with your android phone and test your grammar skill. Learn Kannada Listening on you phone whenever.
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This story is from December 13, Dec 13, , 7: The adult ELT programme was launched 3 years ago to train students in higher educational institutions HEIs before they ventured into the professional world. The programme has created grammar books in about 10 languages and bilingual dictionaries in nine. The Kannada version of the grammar book is set to be released in and will focus on cities like Tumakuru, Ballari, Mandya, Hubballi and Dharwad.
Thus though the work is the first modern Kannada grammar in English; it is the first Kannada grammar written by a Christian missionary; it is the first work which has adopted western terminology to explain Kannada grammar; it is the first work in which Kannada letters are printed, the work suffers from serious deficiencies and is not very useful to a learner. He has not acknowledged Carey and likely that he has no occasion to go through his work.
Lapse of three years between the dates of publication of the two may be too short and the distance from Serampur to Madras not convenient to reach him. But he is different from the ancient text in many ways. The changes Mckerel has introduced are of two types: firstly he has followed the eight-fold division of words familiar in English grammar, although within the traditional three fold division found in Shabdamanidarpana.
He has listed one hundred twenty Kannada verbs as irregular and eight as defective. By all this he facilitated the communication of this subject to the westerners who were familiar with such terms and it is for them he has addressed his work. Secondly he illustrates from modern Kannada the concepts and rules he defines and enunciates. Thirdly he has arranged a separate chapter for explaining the rules of syntax in Kannada for the first time and in this chapter he illustrates sentences of modern dialect only.
This is in keeping with the needs of the targeted readers; the necessity of the users of the grammar was to learn spoken Kannada of his time and hence the relevance. His approach is to describe Kannada grammar in the western way without rejecting the frame work of ancient grammarians. The new orientation given to the writing of grammatical principles, accepting spoken language for grammatical analysis and recording the modern Kannada forms in his writing are his major contributions to the study of Kannada language.
He was the first person to assert that Sanskrit is not the parent language of Kannada. But the arguments he has advanced to prove the point are based on myths and are unscientific. He records many linguistic changes that have taken place since the time of Shabdamanidarpana.
Thus though Krisnamachari is influenced by Mckerrel he has not blindly followed him and attempted to form rules for the modern dialect in a original manner. Both these works of Mckerrel and Krishnamachari represent a transition stage in the development of Kannada grammar. Whereas Mckerrel uses a large number of western concepts, Krisnamachari uses the terminology adopted by Bhattakalanka from Panini.
Both are written in prose — one in English and the other in Kannada — differing from ancient works in verse and sutras.
Emphasis on spoken language, illustrating modern Kannada linguistic forms, framing new rules to explain new developments in the modern language are common in both these texts and this new out-look characterise both of them.
He has transliterated every Kannada word into Roman scripts so that it is readable by the English readers. This helped the translators in their ventures. The deficiencies of the previous works i. We find that he has successfully adopted the eight fold division of words, without any where referring to the ancient three fold division.
When we go through his formulations it seems as if this is the only classification most appropriate to Kannada lexicon. The application of the principles of regularity, irregularity and defectiveness of verbs is complete in his grammar; he has listed one hundred and twenty irregular verbs and twelve defective verbs with all their irregular and defective forms respectively.
He has explained that Kannada verbs are formed by the addition of Kannada personal suffixes to the infinitive and participle forms of the verb. These are original contributions of Hodson to the field of Kannada grammar.
These however do not reduce the importance or the usefulness of the work. It can be safely said Hodson gave a new direction to the discourse of grammar in Kannada in the nineteenth century. He successfully changed the basis of classification of words, thus paving the way for further discussions in this direction; He also changed the discussion on verbs and the formation of different tenses in them; he made the translators look to more appropriate translational representations and the grammarians of later years followed him.
It has three chapters: 1 the alphabet — in this chapter all Kannada letters are listed; 2 Vocabulary of familiar words in their simplest form — here has listed chosen words under eight divisions each division comprising a part of speech. Among this third chapter is the biggest occupying ninety pages out of a total of one hundred one pages.
This shows the importance Ziegler has given to Kannada sentences in learning the language. First chapter has elementary details on Kannada alphabet; second chapter has words divided into parts of speech; third has sentences with their meaning in English. Thus the book has three lists — the list of letters, list of words and list of sentences. The book has an introduction where the author gives instructions to the user which would maximise the usefulness of the book.
Ziegler explains that the foreign learner should find a native teacher who should at the beginning read the first chapter of the book to him the learner. After listening several times to his teacher should the learner say after the teacher looking at the letter in question and repeat the process until he can do that to the satisfaction of the teacher.
And only after mastering reading the letters he should practice writing the letters. Thus here we find that listening, speaking, reading and writing are taken in that order and has been suggested as the right order to learn a language. He has clearly indicated that in any circumstance writing should not be taken up at the beginning Ziegler, p i-iv. That listening and speaking are the first steps and then come reading and writing in that order in language learning is the modern concept French, p 15 and Ziegler has rightly proposed it as early as But his emphasis that one should learn letters first and then words and as a last step sentence is to be learnt does not stand to modern theory in which the order is actually the reverse.
Six editions of the book have been published from to showing its popularity. The book was of great help to the missionaries who wanted to learn Kannada. He has also constructed a tenth table in which he summarises the content of the previous nine tables and an eleventh which is the Roman transcription of the tenth.
All these tables are printed one on each page, the size of the page varying according to the quantum of the material it accommodates. A table consists of horizontal rows and vertical columns and the captions at the top of the columns and at the left hand extreme of the row define the rules.
The content included in the cells the squares in the body of the table serves as illustration for the rules defined by captions of the row and column. This technique enables the author to include a lot of material in the minimum of space. The clarity of a well written essay cannot be expected here but that is the price one has to pay for the brevity imposed by the format.
There are nine main tables in this work and they fall into three categories: 1 The first table is a category in itself and enumerates the Kannada alphabet; he has also enlisted cluster of consonants involving three of them consonants ; in his opinion Kannada aspirated consonants are actually clusters of the consonant with h. The tables form comprehensive-consolidated statements and can be used as ready reference material rather than material for detailed study. That is the use these tables also can be put to.
Though these tables cannot be used for an independent and complete study of the subject, for one who has already studied the details the table serve to recall and revise the principles of Kannada grammar. In fact it is an abridged version of Shabdamanidarpana rendered in prose of the modern dialect. Wurthe has followed the method of chapterisation followed in Shabdamanidarpana and has made it short in his own way.
In the former there are about sutras. This number differs in different editions. In A Short Grammar this number is only The techniques of abridgement Wurthe has followed are the following: a He has combined two sutras sometimes by reframing the sentences and sometimes by omitting certain words. He has retained only one illustration amongst two or three given in the original text.
And left out such words which do not actually illustrate the rule. Abridgement is not the only difference between Shabdamanidarpana and A Short Grammar. Reorganisation of Sutras of Shabdamanidarpana and giving each one of them an English title bring brevity and increased usefulness to the work.
The 43rd Sutra in the original has become 2nd rule here. The 23rd and 14th Sutras are combined in the 6th rule etc. The English titles given interpret the grammar to non-Kannadigas by applying the terminology of English grammar to the concepts of old Kannada grammar.
They also help the reader to choose the correct Sutra for their reference under a given circumstance. There are sub-titles given at the end of sutras which throw light upon the content of the sutra. It is a treatise which helps the readers in understanding the old Kannada literary works and is a first of its kind in many respects.
Canarese School Grammar is a short treatise meant for use in schools. Neither teaching the language through grammar nor scholarly discussions on the origin and development of the language as it is important in the next work to be discussed are important to its author. It is designed to help the teachers and students to teach and learn the elements of Kannada grammar in schools.
Hence it is written in the form of questions and answers. The plan of the book and the classification words in it reflect the unity and completeness of grammar.
These are not seen so clearly in any other previous work. Letters are the atomic elements of the language at-least in the written form; words are composed of letters; and the sentences are made up of words.
These are thus the elements of the same continuum and the divisions in the book convey this clearly. The first chapter not only enumerates and classifies letters but also treats sundhee which is change of letters as a result of euphonisation during uninterrupted speaking and also has a paragraph on punctuation marks which were newly introduced to Kannada writing in the nineteenth century and were not explained in any previous work of Kannada grammar.
In the section on words, it is shown how each word can be identified in three different ways viz: 1 on the basis of its linguistic origin i. The last chapter deals with syntax. The book is brief; meant for school children; but is important because it presents rare type of classification of the subject matter of any grammar and includes and perfects a classification of words presented earlier by Krishnmachari.
These are presented in a flow-chart model in the annexure at the end of the paper. These not only broadened the horizon of Kannada grammar but also created data base and solid framework for further linguistic progress.
At the same time several brief text books of grammar as per the demands of the contemporary schools were also written in good number.
These two streams are the characteristics of this period. Ferdinand Kittel, D N Shankara Bhat and Kushalappa Gowda have written grammars which intend to clarify the nature of the Kannada language and its relationship with other languages. Kittel was more interested in the process of transition of the ancient dialect to the medieval dialect and then on to the modern dialect. He has expressly stated the rules for the changes that took place from one stage of the language to the next and thereby sought to uncover the nature of the Kannada language.
Shankara Bhat was concerned to liberate Kannada grammar from the clutches of Sanskrit and English grammatical framework and create a new framework suitable for detailing the rules of Kannada linguistic structure on its own right. Kushalappa gowda tried to apply the new terminology of linguistics to Kannada.
It is more voluminous than all such works up to his time planned in twenty-seven chapters spreading to more than five hundred pages. Kittel was the first person to notice and document that there are three stages in the development of Kannada language namely Ancient dialect, medieval dialect and Modern dialect; this he did for the first time in his dictionary published in and adopted the same and subjected them for deeper discussion in this grammar. Thus he made Kannada grammar more comprehensive and complete.
This small stock, however, later developed into thirteen classes of words now found in the language. Every page of his book is densely filled with original and significant findings. For the first time in the history of Kannada grammar he has taken into consideration the language of the old Canarese inscriptions and thus attempted to build the history of Kannada grammatical units from the earliest available documents to the latest contemporary language of his times.
His work is thus not simply a grammar for the learner but also an authentic document for the historical linguist. He is the author of at-least seven treatises explaining different aspects of Kannada grammar outlining the principles for a Kannada grammar which does not depend on an exterior framework. Total extent of all of his writings is as voluminous as two thousand pages and deal with different aspects of grammar.
He has studied in detail the previous grammatical literature in Kannada, compared different works and identified the limitations of the Sanskrit and English frameworks in explaining the rules peculiar to our language. He has many such suggestions in his works which help to construct Kannada grammar in its own right. The principles enshrined in his works may be seen as an attempt to write Kannada grammar on constructive lines.
He was met with stiff opposition from the traditionalists. For example Ranganatha Sharma opined using the terminology already prevalent would make the subject easier to understand Sharma, rather than create a set of new terminology. This is not again a full-fledged text book of grammar; it has fifteen research articles spread over pages.
He has conceptualised a dialect which is chronologically previous to the ancient dialect defined by Kittel. Chronologically its period is 5 th century to the end of 9th century AD. The dialect has distinct pronominal endings, case suffixes and number suffixes as features defining it as a dialect other than the ancient dialect Gowda, p This has been accepted now as a distinct stage in the development of Kannada.
This period saw the advent of Haridasa Sahitya lit Dasa literature which made rich contributions to bhakti literature and sowed the seeds of Carnatic music. Purandara Dasa is widely considered the Father of Carnatic music.
The Kannada works produced from the 19th century make a gradual transition and are classified as Hosagannada or Modern Kannada. Most notable among the modernists was the poet Nandalike Muddana whose writing may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada", though generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada.
Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Works of Kannada literature have received eight Jnanpith Jnanpith awards and fifty six Sahitya Academy awards.
Dialects[ edit ] There is also a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of the language. Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less consistent throughout Karnataka. The Ethnologue reports "about 20 dialects" of Kannada.
All of these dialects are influenced by their regional and cultural background Ethnologue also classifies a group of four languages related to Kannada, which are, besides Kannada proper, Badaga language Badaga, Holiya and Urali. Official status[ edit ] Kannada is one of the 23 official languages of India and is an administrative language of the State of Karnataka. It is also one of the six classical languages of India. The script itself, derived from Brahmi script, is airly complicated like most other languages of India owing to the occurrence of various combinations of "half-letters" glyphs , or symbols that attach to various letters in a manner similar to diacritical marks in the Romance languages.
The Kannada script is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" which becomes a half m. The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters ottakshara. Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable, as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English. The Kannada script is syllabic. The letters dropped out of use in the 12th and 18th centuries, respectively.
Another letter or unclassified vyanjana consonant that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. Likewise, this has its equivalent in Malayalam and Tamil. The usage of this consonant was observed until the s in Kannada works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka especially the Dakshina Kannada district. Now hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. Kannada script evolution[ edit ] The image below shows the evolution of Kannada script from prehistoric times to modern period.
The ProtoKannada script has its root in ancient Brahmi and evolved around c. The Pre-Old Kannada script evolved around c. Old Kannada script can be traced to c. Grammar[ edit ] The canonical word order of Kannada is SOV subject—object—verb as is the case with Dravidian languages. Kannada is a highly inflected language with three Grammatical gender genders masculine, feminine, and neuter or common and two numbers singular and plural.
It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things. The first authoritative known book on Kannada grammar is Shabdhamanidarpana by Keshiraaja.