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Drug Information: A Guide for Pharmacists, 6e. Patrick M. Malone, Meghan J. Malone, Sharon K. Park. Go to Review Questions. Search Textbook Autosuggest . Drug Information: A Guide for Pharmacists, 5e. Patrick M. Malone, PharmD, FASHP, Karen L. Kier, PhD, MSc, RPh, BCPS, BCACP, John E. Stanovich, RPh. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Drug Information: A Guide for Pharmacists, 6th ed. | dancindonna.info?bookid=
The aim was to evaluate the performance of DIC for improving the quality and quantity of information services provided to the healthcare professionals. The service was provided free of cost to the customers. This descriptive study was conducted for the period of 6 months from February to August excluding May due to vacation. Customers were asked: Was it good, satisfactory, or need improvement? There were written feedback forms to be filled by the customers, including customer satisfaction questions. The bulletin is circulated for free to the healthcare professionals electronically.
If the request is patient-specific or academic. The patient's diagnosis and other medications. The urgency of the request negotiate time of response. Availability of Dosage Forms What is the dosage form desired? What administration routes are feasible with this patient?
Is this patient alert and oriented? Does the patient have a water or sodium restriction? What other special factors regarding drug administration should be considered? Identification of Product What is the generic or trade name of the product? Who is the manufacturer? What is the country of origin? What is the suspected use of this product? Under what circumstances was this product found? Who found the product?
What is the dosage form, color markings, size, etc.? What was your source of information? Was it reliable? General Product Information Why is there a particular concern for this product? Is written patient information required? What type of information do you need? Is this for an inpatient, outpatient, or private patient? What is the dosage form, markings, color, strength, or size? What is the suspected use of the drug? How often is the patient taking it?
What is the patient's response to the drug? Is the patient male or female? Is the patient just visiting, or are they planning on staying? Investigational Drug Information Why do you need this information?
Is the patient in need of the drug or currently enrolled in a protocol?
If a drug is to be identified, what is the dosage form, markings, color, strength, or size of the product? Why was the patient receiving the drug? What is the response when the patient was on the drug? What are the patient's pathological conditions? If a drug is desired what approved or accepted therapies have been tried? Was therapy maximized before discontinued? Method and Rate of Administration What dosage form or preparation is being used if multiple salts available?
What is the dose ordered? Is the drug a one-time dose or standing orders? What is the clinical status of the patient? For example, could the patient tolerate a fluid push of XX mL?
Is the patient fluid or sodium Please enter User Name Password Error: Please enter Password Forgot Username? Forgot Password?
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AccessEmergency Medicine. Case Files Collection. Clinical Sports Medicine Collection. Davis PT Collection. Murtagh Collection. About Search. Enable Autosuggest. There are no requesters of information. Some information needs to be disseminated in advance for the benefit of healthcare professionals and patients in the settings.
Those emails of drug or clinical news were sent to all the departmental heads through email. Some of the examples of drug bans circulated were Rosiglitazone, Sibutramine, Gatifloxacin, and Nimesulide for children, placenta extracts, Phenylpropanolamine, and Cisapride.
Guidelines and policy-making documents circulated include WHO essential medicines list , National list of essential drugs , and WHO Priority medicines for mothers and children. From February , more than 20 email communications of proactive DI were sent to the health care professionals in the hospital. Considering the academic interest of the healthcare professionals, research, review, and expert opinion article were published in the bulletin to improve knowledge and clinical practice [ Table 9 ].
Four drugs news were published in months February and April and three drugs news are published in March, May, June, and July [ Table 10 ]. The project student and the other Pharm. D students used to go for regular ward rounds and request of queries if any from the health care professionals. There was remarkable response from the healthcare professionals while approaching them for queries.
It saved their time in practice. In March, we tried not to go and request for queries to observe the initiatives from the healthcare professionals in the hospital to forward queries to the DIC. But we got less number of queries by this strategy. When there is a query developed while practice, it needs to be addressed immediately.
If a personal help was not available in recording and forwarding the query to the DIC, utilization of the services of DIC decreases. As the Pharm. D students had more freedom and easy access to the nurses in the wards, they were able to collect and answer more number of queries with nurses than doctors. But even though there was higher access to pharmacists, the numbers of queries were less. More number of drug queries generate in the clinical side, especially in the ward rounds.
And doctors do communicate that to the nurses and they do communicate it to the DIC through Pharm. D students in the ward. Many of the queries generated in the pharmacy could be easily answerable by the pharmacists using the DI resources present in the pharmacy. After all doctors and pharmacists have access to the internet and other DI resources in their workplace which decrease the use of DIC by them.
During the study period, a great percentage of the queries were from the nurses of three departments, i. This could reflect the academic interest of the nurses working in the area. The service was utilized by nurses to a greater extent compared to pharmacists, physician, and other healthcare professionals. There was consistency in the queries asked by the nurses throughout the study period. Majority of the queries were asked were drug oriented for update the knowledge.
The DI queries most commonly asked were related to adverse drug reactions or side effects and indication. Most of the queries were received by direct access, which could be accounted by the easy accessibility of the center and its service. In future, we are planning to encourage all the healthcare professionals to ask more queries through email or SMS and practice less paper policy.
There is need of improvement in time required as doctors need information mostly within few minutes or hours for using it in their practice. Time of delivery of service is one of the important factors in clinical practice.
Many healthcare professionals including pharmacists were not using the DI services for their practice because they needed the information within few minutes to use it in their practice. Therefore, majority of the DI requests were for academic improvement and not for individual patient care.
The study was done in the beginning stages of the DIC. Evaluation and critical appraisal of the DIC services need to be done on a regular basis as quality is not a destination, it is a journey.
DIC is a great step as it is helping to prevent all the errors, which could have took place, in absence of proper information provided by DIC. This shall establish the significance of DIC as an organization and shall also open markets for DIC for other healthcare professionals. Our DI services could be made available for the healthcare professionals of other healthcare institutions. The DIC is also planning to start a full time poison information center and health information center for public.
The awareness of DI center can be improved by advertising DIC from newspaper, social media, and website. As a future study it could be planned to analyze the type and rate of preventable errors in healthcare practice not consulting DIC compared to those who are consulting DIC. This shall further establish the importance of consulting DIC. In this study, we concluded that the service provided by DIC service is helpful for all health care professionals to increase their knowledge and then practice.
There were less number of queries came to use directly in individualized patients as the services of the center was not popularized in the hospital.
Using appropriate evidence-based DIC with shortest time with shortest modes of communication phone could establish a system of DI to improve practice of prescribers. An effective DIC service saves the time of practitioners. At present the DIC services were mostly used for academic interests. Once the DIC start giving quicker and dependable answers consistently, it shall become one of the integral parts of healthcare practice.
It is advisable to study in future about the impact of DIC services in the hospital for reducing errors and improving healthcare practices. Source of Support: Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. Kannan 2. Shanmugha M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Address for correspondence: Seeba Zachariah, E-mail: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background: Materials and Methods: Results and Discussion: DIC, drug, pharmacist, query, service. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive study done as part of Pharm.
Results A total of queries were obtained during the study period of 6 months. Table 1 Queries according to months. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Method of collection of queries from professionals.
Table 3 Queries collected from the departments. Table 4 Queries according to question type.
Table 5 Queries according to type of requester. Table 6 Class of questions. Table 7 Feedback of queries. Table 8 DI answering time. Proactive drug information Proactive DI is given without a query.
Table 10 Drug news publish in bulletin. Discussion The project student and the other Pharm. Conclusion In this study, we concluded that the service provided by DIC service is helpful for all health care professionals to increase their knowledge and then practice. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: References 1. SHPA Standard for practice of drug information services. Aust J Hosp Pharm. Kelly MS, Elaine L.
Drug information resources. Drug information - A guide for pharmacist.