These are good books for making base strong. And if you are clear with basics or have less time go with computer and informatics book of jain. Computing Informatics is a hard subject for those not studied IT/Computers. For this subject I have bought two books along with study materials. How to pass Computing & Informatics - Introduce Yourself - AMIE Study pack i.e. the computing and informatics book. if u go through last five.
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'A' Students book online at best prices in India on dancindonna.info Read Computing & Informatics: For A.M.I.E. Sec. 'A' Students book reviews & author details and. dancindonna.info - download AMIE - Section - (A) Computing and Informatics (AD, AN- ) Diploma Solved and Unsolved Paper (Summer, ) book online at best. The text in this book is based on the syllabus of the newly introduced subject AN- /AD Computing and Informatics of AMIE dancindonna.info book has.
Started by sunita. Started by praveen General Topics and Discussions. Login Register Login. I need mining engineering previous years question paper can anyone help me May 13, , Good afternoon every1 May 09, , Dear Shahul, kindly follow the link: HLW everyone, can anyone send me notes for material scienece April 30, , Any one can guide me, to join new membership ST Diploma stream by online???
April 30, , Good evening April 30, , Hi April 29, , Please I need guidance April 28, , April 28, , Good Afternoon Everyone April 25, , Happy Easter Every1 April 21, , This is to be emphasized that studying the materials provided by the Institution of Engineers is not at all sufficient for passing AMIE exam.
This is the exact reason why we prepared coaching materials for AMIE students. However it has caused a lot of misconceptions too. Students prepring for AMIE blindly beleive that the books prepared and issued by the IEI is all-sufficient for scoring pass mark in the examination.
The truth is - the IEI books can be useful only to get an outline of the syllabus. This is not worthy to be used as a text book. Please note that the Study Materials of Jyothis Academy is entirely different from the materials provided by Institution of Engineers, Kolkata.
Some features of the study materials Prepared as per the existing syllabus w. A student who uses this material doesn't need to use any other textbooks. Comprehensive, which means it covers entire syllabus, even the minutest topic not ignored.
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The concept of "area"made good sense at this time, because a key distinction between a LAN and a WANinvolves the physical distance that the network spans. A third category, the MAN, also fitinto this scheme as it too is centered on a distance-based concept. As technology improved, new types of networks appeared on the scene. These, too,became known as various types of "area networks" for consistencys sake, althoughdistance no longer proved a useful differentiator.
A networked officebuilding, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one buildingwill contain a few small LANs, and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearbybuildings.
Besides operating in a limited space, LANs include several other distinctive features. LANs are typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also use certain specific connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and TokenRing. WAN BasicsAs the term implies, a wide-area network spans a large physical distance.
A WAN likethe Internet spans most of the world! Like the Internet, most WANs arenot owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributedownership and management.
On a home network, like many LANs, all computerscan communicate directly with each other, but they must go through a central gatewaylocation to reach devices outside of their local area. Future articles will describe the many other types of area networks in more detail.
ConclusionTo the uninitiated, LANs, WANs, and the other area network acroymns appear to be justmore alphabet soup in a technology industry already drowning in terminology. Thenames of these networks are not nearly as important as the technologies used to constructthem, however. A person can use the categorizations as a learning tool to betterunderstand concepts like subnets, gateways, and routers. Bus, ring, star, and other types of network topologyIn networking, the term "topology" refers to the layout of connected devices on anetwork.
This article introduces the standard topologies of computer networking. Topology in Network DesignOne can think of a topology as a networks virtual shape or structure.
This shape does notnecessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. Forexample, the computers on a home LAN may be arranged in a circle in a family room,but it would be highly unlikely to find an actual ring topology there. Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: Bus TopologyBus networks not to be confused with the system bus of a computer use a commonbackbone to connect all devices.
A single cable, the backbone functions as a sharedcommunication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. Adevice wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcastmessage onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actuallyaccepts and processes the message. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and dont require much cablingcompared to the alternatives.
However, busnetworks work best with a limited number of devices. If more than a few dozencomputers are added to a network bus, performance problems will likely result. Inaddition, if the backbone cable fails, the entire network effectively becomes unusable.
Ring TopologyIn a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction either "clockwise" or"counterclockwise".
A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take downthe entire network. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses. Star TopologyMany home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connectionpoint called a "hub" that may be a hub, switch or router. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failurein any star network cable will only take down one computers network access and not theentire LAN.
If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails. Tree TopologyTree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplestform, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the"root" of a tree of devices. Mesh TopologyMesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies,messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source todestination.
Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can onlytravel in one direction. Some WANs, like the Internet, employ mesh routing. SummaryTopologies remain an important part of network design theory. You can probably build ahome or small business network without understanding the difference between a busdesign and a star design, but understanding the concepts behind these gives you a deeperunderstanding of important elements like hubs, broadcasts, and routes Internet protocol suite Internet protocol suite Layer Protocols 5.
The Internet protocol suite — like many protocol suites — can be viewed as a set oflayers, each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, andprovides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services fromsome lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with moreabstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that caneventually be physically transmitted.
The OSI model describes a fixed, seven layer stack for networking protocols. In , Robert E. Kahn was hired at the DARPA InformationProcessing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks andground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able tocommunicate across them.
By the summer of , Kahn and Cerf had soon worked out a fundamentalreformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using acommon internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for 7.
With the role of the network reduced to the bare minimum, it became possible to joinalmost any networks together, no matter what their characteristics were, thereby solvingKahns initial problem. A computer called a gateway later changed torouter to avoid confusion with other types of gateway is provided with an interface toeach network, and forwards packets back and forth between them.
The idea was worked out in more detailed form by Cerfs networking research group atStanford in the —74 period. The early networking work at Xerox PARC, whichproduced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which wascontemporaneous, was also a significant technical influence; people moved between thetwo. Four versions were developed: Layers in the Internet protocol suite stackIP suite stack showing the physical network connection of two hosts via two routers andthe corresponding layers used at each hopSample encapsulation of data within a UDP datagram within an IP packetThe IP suite uses encapsulation to provide abstraction of protocols and services.
Generally a protocol at a higher level uses a protocol at a lower level to help accomplishits aims. For most users, there is no need to look for implementations. Karnaugh mapThe Karnaugh map, also known as a Veitch diagram K-map or KV-map for short , isa tool to facilitate management of Boolean algebraic expressions.
A Karnaugh map isunique in that only one variable changes value between squares, in other words, the rowsand columns are ordered according to the principles of Gray code. History and nomenclatureThe Karnaugh map was invented in by Maurice Karnaugh, a telecommunicationsengineer at Bell Labs.
Usage in boolean logicNormally, extensive calculations are required to obtain the minimal expression of aBoolean function, but one can use a Karnaugh map instead. Karnaugh maps also help teach about Boolean functions and minimization. PropertiesA mapping of minterms on a Karnaugh map. The arrows indicate which squares can bethought of as "switched" rather than being in a normal sequential order. A Karnaugh map may have any number of variables, but usually works best when thereare only a few - between 2 and 6 for example.
Each variable contributes two possibilitiesto each possibility of every other variable in the system. Karnaugh maps are organized sothat all the possibilities of the system are arranged in a grid form, and between twoadjacent boxes, only one variable can change value. This is what allows it to reducehazards. When using a Karnaugh map to derive a minimized function, one "covers" the ones onthe map by rectangular "coverings" that contain a number of boxes equal to a power of 2 for example, 4 boxes in a line, 4 boxes in a square, 8 boxes in a rectangle, etc.
Once aperson has covered the ones, that person can produce a term of a sum of products byfinding the variables that do not change throughout the entire covering, and taking a 1 tomean that variable, and a 0 as the complement of that variable. Doing this for everycovering gives you a matching function.
One can also use zeros to derive a minimized function. The procedure is identical to theprocedure for ones, except that each term is a term in a product of sums - and a 1 meansthe compliment of the variable, while 0 means the variable non-complimented.
Each square in a Karnaugh map corresponds to a minterm and maxterm. The picture tothe right shows the location of each minterm on the map. ExampleConsider the following function: This function has this truth table: The most convenient way to arrange this is in a 4x4 grid. The binary digits in the map represent the functions output for any given combination ofinputs.
Note that the values are ordered in a Gray code, so that precisely onevariable flips between any pair of adjacent cells. After the Karnaugh map has been constructed our next task is to find the minimal termsto use in the final expression.
These terms are found by encircling groups of 1s in themap.
The encirclings must be rectangular and must have an area that is a positive powerof two i. The rectangles should be as large as possible without containingany 0s. The optimal encirclings in this map are marked by the green, red and blue lines.
For each of these encirclings we find those variables that have the same state in each ofthe fields in the encircling.
For the first encircling the red one we find that: Thus the first term in the Boolean expression is AC. For the green encircling we see that A and B maintain the same state, but C and D change.
B is 0 and has to be negated before it can be included. Thus the second term is AB. In the same way, the blue rectangle gives the term BCD and so the whole expression is: The inverse of a function is solved in the same way by encircling the 0s instead. In a Karnaugh map with n variables, a Boolean term mentioning k of them will have acorresponding rectangle of area 2n-k. Karnaugh maps also allow easy minimizations of functions whose truth tables include"dont care" conditions that is sets of inputs for which the designer doesnt care what theoutput is because "dont care" conditions can be included in a ring to make it larger butdo not have to be ringed.
Race hazardsKarnaugh maps are useful for detecting and eliminating race hazards. They are very easyto spot using a Karnaugh map, because a race condition may exist when moving betweenany pair of adjacent, but disjointed, regions circled on the map. For this case, the output is defined to remain unchanged at 1, but because this transition is not covered by a specific term in the equation, a potential for a glitch a momentary transition of the output to 0 exists.
In this case the glitch wraps around from the bottom of the map to the top of the map. Whether these glitches do occur depends on the physical nature of the implementation,and whether we need to worry about it depends on the application.
The term is redundant in terms of the static logic of the system, but such redundant termsare often needed to assure race-free dynamic performance. When not to use K-mapsThe diagram becomes cluttered and hard to interpret if there are more than four variableson an axis. This argues against the use of Karnaugh maps for expressions with more thansix variables. For such expressions, the Quine-McCluskey algorithm, also called themethod of prime implicants, should be used.
This algorithm generally finds most of the optimal solutions quickly and easily, butselecting the final prime implicants after the essential ones are chosen may still requirea brute force approach to get the optimal combination though this is generally farsimpler than trying to brute force the entire problem.
Logic gateA logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces asingle logic output. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is mostcommonly found in digital circuits. Logic gates are primarily implemented electronicallyusing diodes or transistors, but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays,fluidics, optical or even mechanical elements.
Logic levelsA Boolean logical input or output always takes one of two logic levels. These logic levelscan go by many names including: For consistency, the names 1 and 0 will be used below. Logic gatesA logic gate takes one or more logic-level inputs and produces a single logic-level output.
Because the output is also a logic level, an output of one logic gate can connect to theinput of one or more other logic gates. Two outputs cannot be connected together,however, as they may be attempting to produce different logic values.
In electronic logicgates, this would cause a short circuit. In electronic logic, a logic level is represented by a certain voltage which depends on thetype of electronic logic in use.
Each logic gate requires power so that it can source andsink currents to achieve the correct output voltage. In logic circuit diagrams the power isnot shown, but in a full electronic schematic, power connections are required. BackgroundThe simplest form of electronic logic is diode logic. To build a complete logicsystem, valves or transistors can be used.
The simplest family of logic gates using bipolartransistors is called resistor-transistor logic, or RTL. Unlike diode logic gates, RTL gatescan be cascaded indefinitely to produce more complex logic functions. These gates wereused in early integrated circuits. It was then discovered thatone transistor could do the job of two diodes in the space of one diode, so transistor-transistor logic, or TTL, was created.