PDF | This paper proposes a compact design of SMS4 S-box using combinational logic which is suitable for the implementation in area constraint environments. Course Objectives: BEE (Basic Electric Engineering) is common to first year branches of Know the fundamental of Electrical Engineering and practical. 2. BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Notes pdf (BEE) Pdf UNIT - I Introduction to Electrical Engineering: ohm's law, basic circuit components,Kirchoff's laws.
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Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. Lecture Notes (44); Assignments. Module Name, Download, Description, Download Size. Introduction, Introducing the Course on Basic Electrical, PDF, kb DC Circuit, Introduction of Electric Circuit, PDF, kb. DC Circuit, Loop. Download Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering Notes pdf. We have provided Basic Electrical and Electronics of dancindonna.info 1st Year Study Materials and.
We have provided Basic Electrical and Electronics of B. From the following B. We provide B. At the end of the course the student is expected to Know the fundamental of Electrical Engineering and practical and Practical implementation of fundamental theory concepts. Course Outcomes: Students will learn strong basics of Electrical Engineering and practical implementation of Electrical fundamentals.
AC waveforms When an alternator produces AC voltage, the voltage switches polarity over time, but does so in a very particular manner. Here are but a few sample waveforms Some common waveshapes waveforms. These waveforms are by no means the only kinds of waveforms in existence. They're simply a few that are common enough to have been given distinct names. Generally speaking, any waveshape bearing close resemblance to a perfect sine wave is termed sinusoidal, anything different being labeled as non-sinusoidal.
Being that the waveform of an AC voltage or current is crucial to its impact in a circuit, we need to be aware of the fact that AC waves come in a variety of shapes. Alternating current Direct current DC circuits involve current flowing in one direction.
In a circuit which only involves resistors, the current and voltage are in phase with each other, which means that the peak voltage is reached at the same instant as peak current. In circuits which have capacitors and inductors coils the phase relationships will be quite different.
Capacitance in an AC circuit Consider now a circuit which has only a capacitor and an AC power source such as a wall outlet. A capacitor is a device for storing charging. We should follow the circuit through one cycle of the voltage to figure out what happens to the current A capacitor in an AC circuit exhibits a kind of resistance called capacitive reactance, measured in ohms. Inductance in an AC circuit An inductor is simply a coil of wire often wrapped around a piece of ferromagnet. RLC Circuits Consider what happens when resistors, capacitors, and inductors are combined in one circuit.
The overall resistance to the flow of current in an RLC circuit is known as the impedance, symbolized by Z. The impedance is found by combining the resistance, the capacitive reactance, and the inductive reactance. Unlike a simple series circuit with resistors, however, where the resistances are directly added, in an RLC circuit the resistance and reactances are added as vectors. This is because of the phase relationships. In a circuit with just a resistor, voltage and current are in phase.
When all three components are combined into one circuit, there has to be some compromise. To figure out the overall effective resistance, as well as to determine the phase between the voltage and current, the impedance is calculated like this. The phase relationship between the current and voltage can be found from the vector diagram: its the angle between the impedance, Z, and the resistance, R. The angle can be found from: If the angle is positive, the voltage leads the current by that angle.
If the angle is negative, the voltage lags Students sometimes become confused when computing power in threephase circuits. One reason for this confusion is that there are actually two formulas that can be used. In the second formula, the phase values of voltage and current are multiplied by 3. The first formula is used more often because it is generally more convenient to obtain line values of voltage and current, which can be measured with a voltmeter and clamp-on ammeter.
Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced three-phase system.
With the above circuit, the line voltage is roughly volts. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component source winding or load impedance in a balanced three-phase source or load.
For the circuit shown above, the phase voltage is volts. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor, and the latter to current through any one component.
Y-connected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages, and line currents equal to phase currents.
Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure below. Construction and Basic principle operation of Moving-iron Instruments The instruments are classified according to the principles of operation. Furthermore, each class may be subdivided according to the nature of the movable system and method by which the operating torque is produced.
Specifically, the electromagnetic instruments are sub-classes as i moving-iron instruments ii electro-dynamic or dynamometer instruments, iii induction instruments. In moving —iron instruments the movable system consists of one or more pieces of specially-shaped soft iron, which are so pivoted as to be acted upon by the magnetic field produced by the current in coil. There are two general types of moving-iron instruments namely i Repulsion or double iron type ii Attraction or single-iron type.
The brief description of different components of a moving-iron instrument is given below. Permanent Magnet Moving Coil PMMC Instruments The general theory of moving-coil instruments may be dealt with considering a rectangular coil of turns, free to rotate about a vertical axis.
A moving coil instrument consists basically of a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field and a small lightweight coil is wound on a rectangular soft iron core that is free to rotate around its vertical axis.
When a current is passed through the coil windings, a torque is developed on the coil by the interaction of the magnetic field and the field set up by the current in the coil.
The aluminum pointer attached to rotating coil and the pointer moves around the calibrated scale indicates the deflection of the coil. To reduce parallax error a mirror is usually placed along with the scale. A balance weight is also attached to the pointer to counteract its weight see Fig. To use PMMC device as a meter, two problems must be solved. First, a way must be found to return the coil to its original position when there is no current through the coil.
Second, a method is needed to indicate the amount of coil movement. The first problem is solved by the use of hairsprings attached to each end of the coil as shown in Fig. These hairsprings are not only supplying a restoring torque but also provide an electric connection to the rotating coil. With the use of hairsprings, the coil will return to its initial position when no current is flowing though the coil. The springs will also resist the movement of coil when there is current through coil.
When the developing force between the magnetic fields from permanent magnet and electro magnet is exactly equal to the force of the springs, the coil rotation will stop. The coil set up is supported on jeweled bearings in order to achieve free movement.
Two other features are considered to increase the accuracy and efficiency of this meter movement. First, an iron core is placed inside the coil to concentrate the magnetic fields. Second, the curved pole faces ensure the turning force on the coil increases as the current increases.
Lr Principle of operation It has been mentioned that the interaction between the induced field and the field produced by the permanent magnet causes a deflecting torque, which results in rotation of the coil. This result the flux densityB is constant and the torque is proportional to the coil current and instrument scale is linear.
Ammeters and voltmeters An ammeter is required to measure the current in a circuit and it therefore connected in series with the components carrying the current. If the ammeter resistance is not very much smaller than the load resistance, the load current can be substantially altered by the inclusion of the ammeter in the circuit. At the end of the course the student is expected to Know the fundamental of Electrical Engineering and practical and Practical implementation of fundamental theory concepts.
Course Outcomes: Students will learn strong basics of Electrical Engineering and practical implementation of Electrical fundamentals. Students will learn different applications of commonly used electrical machinery. Types of Signals: Analog and Digital Signals — Modulation and Demodulation: Principles of Amplitude and Frequency Modulations.
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