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In this IC Circuits ebook, we have presented about interesting circuits using In most cases the IC will contain 10 - transistors, cost less than the. Go to: IC Circuits 97 CIRCUITS as of plus 12v DC to 12v DC Battery . But this eBook has brought everything together and. IC Circuits Elektrotechniek, Metaaldetector, Leren, Gadgets, Tech, with RFID (eBook) Electronics Projects, Software Ontwikkeling, Frambozen, Boeken.
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In contrast, if there is any break in the flow of electricity, this is known as an open circuit. All circuits need to have three basic elements. These elements are a voltage source, conductive path and a load.
The voltage source, such as a battery, is needed in order to cause the current to flow through the circuit. In addition, there needs to be a conductive path that provides a route for the electricity to flow. Finally, a proper circuit needs a load that consumes the power. The load in the above circuit is the light bulb. When working with circuits, you will often find something called a schematic diagram. These symbols are graphic representations of the actual electronic components.
Below is an example of a schematic that depicts an LED circuit that is controlled by a switch. It contains symbols for an LED, resistor, battery and a switch. By following a schematic diagram, you are able to know which components to use and where to put them. These schematics are extremely helpful for beginners when first learning circuits. There are many types of electronic symbols and they vary slightly between countries. Below are a few of the most commonly used electronic symbols in the US.
To find the resistor value, you need to know the voltage and the amps for your LED and battery. Next, you need to find out what voltage your battery is. In this example, we will be using a 9V battery. This will give you a voltage of 7 which needs to be divided by.
This project is a great starter project for beginners. We will be using test leads to create a temporary circuit without having to solder it together. You can however connect an LED to a 3V or smaller battery without a resistor.
Another way to create and test a circuit is to build it on a breadboard. These boards are essential for testing and prototyping circuits because no soldering is needed. Components and wires are pushed into the holes to form a temporary circuit. Below the holes of each row are metal clips that connect the holes to each other.
The middle rows run vertically as shown while the exterior columns are connected horizontally.
These exterior columns are called power rails and are used to receive and provide power to the board. Breadboards will need to have power supplied to them and this can be done in a few ways. One of the easiest way is to plug the wires from a battery holder into the power rails.
The red arrows in the image below help to show how electricity is flowing in this circuit. All components are connected to each other in a circle just like when we used the test leads.
There are a lot of great places online to find electronic components, parts and tools. This resistor is shown in dashed line on Pic. The PCB and components layout for the receiver shown on Pic. Miniature loudspeakers from the pocket-size radio receivers should be avoided, since their efficiency and sound quality are poor, especially in the low frequencies area. On Pic. That isn't such a bad solution, but even better would be using the loudspeaker with greater power and membrane diameter During the testing the 3 W , 8 Ohm loudspeaker has also been used, and the sound quality was much better than with the one that is shown on the picture.
As you can see, the cables connecting the loudspeaker with the PCB are firmly twisted around each other. This is a must, especially for the cables being longer than a dozen centimetres. The same has to be done with cables that connect PCB with the battery and the main switch Z. The LED and 1u capacitor can be clearly seen in this photo.
Sometimes it is better to use something that is already available, rather than trying to re-invent the wheel.
This is certainly the case with this project. You could not download the components for the cost of the complete phone charger and extension leads. The circuit will deliver 70mA at 5v and if a higher current is drawn, the voltage drops slightly.
They form a LATCH to keep the oscillator made up of the next two gates in operation, to drive the speaker. This turns on the oscillator and the 10u starts to charge via the k resistor. In, Common, Out on the circuit diagram.
If the current requirement is less than mA, a R "safety resistor" can be placed on the 24v rail to prevent spikes damaging the regulator.
The only difference is the choice of chips. It flashes a LED for 20 seconds after a switch is pressed. In other words, for 20 seconds as soon as the switch is pressed.
The values will need to be adjusted to get the required flash-rate and timing. As both microphones and loudspeakers are always connected, the circuit is designed to avoid feedback - known as the "Larsen effect". These are mixed by the 10u, 22u, 20k pot and 2k7 so that the two signals almost cancel out. In this way, the loudspeaker will reproduce a very faint copy of the signals picked-up by the microphone. The same operation will occur when speaking into the microphone of the second unit.
When the 20k pot is set correctly, almost no output will be heard from the loudspeaker but a loud and clear reproduction will be heard at the output of the other unit. The second 20k pot adjusts the volume. When the phone rings for 3 or 4 rings, the relay is activated for about 1 minute. But if the phone rings for 6 or more rings, the circuit is not activated.
The circuit takes less than uA when in quiescent state and when the phone rings, the ring voltage is passed to pin 1 via the k and n capacitor. This causes pin 2 to go HIGH and charge two u electrolytics. The lower u charges in 7 seconds and the upper charges in 12 seconds. If the phone rings for only 3 rings, pin 4 goes LOW and charges the third u via a 47k resistor.
After a further 7 seconds, pin 10 goes HIGH. If the phone stops ringing after 3 rings, the lower u starts to discharge via the k and after about 40 seconds pin 4 goes HIGH. The third u now starts to discharge via the k across it and the relay turns off. The shorter steel rod is the "water high" sensor and the longer is the "water low" sensor.
When the water level is below both sensors, pin 10 is low. If the water comes in contact with the longer sensor the output remains low until the shorter sensor is reached. At this point pin11 goes high and the transistor conducts. The relay is energized and the pump starts operating.
When the water level drops the shorter sensor will be no longer in contact with the water, but the output of the IC will keep the transistor tuned ON until the water falls below the level of the longer rod. When the water level falls below the longer sensor, the output of the IC goes low and the pump will stop.
The switch provides reverse operation. In this case, the pump will be used to fill the tank and not to empty it. The two steel rods must be supported by a small insulated wooden or plastic board. The circuit can be used also with non-metal tanks, provided a third steel rod having about the same height as the tank is connected to the negative. Adding an alarm to pin 11 will let you know the tank is nearly empty.
This occurs in the circuit when the gate is LOW. Ideally the PNP transistor should be replaced with a Darlington transistor. This circuit originally designed by: The length of activation depends on the value of the resistor across the 10u electrolytic. Pin 2 will be kept LOW and the 10u will discharge via the resistor across it and eventually pin 3 will go LOW and the relay will turn off.
If a signal is still present on the base of the input transistor, the relay will remain energised as the circuit will charge the 10u again. Test 1: Test 2: You now now the base lead and the type of transistor.
Place the transistor in Test 2 circuit top circuit and when you have fitted the collector and emitter leads correctly maybe have to swap leads , the red or green LED will come on to prove you have fitted the transistor correctly. Test 3: The value of gain is marked on the PCB that comes with the kit. The kit has ezy clips that clip onto the leads of the transistor to make it easy to use the project. Project cost: Adjust the 5k pot for The plug pack will need to be upgraded for the mA or 1.
The red LED indicates charging and as the battery voltage rises, the current-flow decreases. The output has an active buzzer that produces a beep when the pulse LED illuminates. The buzzer is not a piezo-diaphragm but an active buzzer containing components. It is called an electro-mechanical buzzer as it has two coils. The main coil pulls the diaphragm to the core via a transistor and the feedback coil drives the base. When the transistor is fully saturated, the feedback winding does not see any induced voltage and current and the transistor turns OFF.
The rapid action of this oscillator produces an annoying squeal. When relay 1 turns off, relay 2 turns ON for any period of time as determined by C2 and R2. When relay 2 turns off, relay 1 turns ON and the cycle repeats. He wanted 4 pumps to operate randomly in his water-fountain feature.
A 74C14 IC can be used to produce 4 timing circuits with different on-off values.
The trim-pots can be replaced with resistors when the desired effect has been created. A flip-flop is a form of bi-stable multivibrator, wired so an input signal will change the output on every second cycle.
In other words it divides halves the input signal. When two of these are connected in a "chain" the input signal divides by 4. The CD IC has 14 stages.
The IC also has components called gates or inverters on pins 9,10 and 11 that can be wired to produce an oscillator.
Three external components are needed to produce the duration of the oscillations. In other words the frequency of the "clock signal. Each stage rises and falls at a rate that is half the previous stage and the final stage provides the long time delay as it takes 2 13 clock cycles before going HIGH.
We have only taken from Q10 in this circuit and the outline of the chip has been provided in the circuit so different outputs can be used to produce different timings. The diode on the output "jams" the oscillator and stops it operating so the relay stays active when the time has expired.
Ladybug automatically makes a left turn the moment it detects an object in its path. It continues to move forward again when no obstacle is in the way. See Hex Bug in " Transistor Circuits" for a transistor version of this circuit.
It is only suitable for low frequency signals such as audio but can also reproduce low-frequency square waves. It's fun to talk into the microphone and see the result on the screen. To see a trace across the centre of the screen. The audio will raise and lower the trace to produce a waveform. The photo on the right shows the authors model.
More photos of PCB on site. A very interesting kit and great educational value. User selectable time scale from mS to 6. Scan rate of k samples per second for effective maximum frequency of 15kHz. Operates from a single supply and can even be powered off a single 9V battery. Two voltage scales and a full range voltage offset allows measurement of AC and DC signals.
Supply Voltage: Preset VR1 is fine-tuned to get 0. At the same time, pulses obtainable from pin 1 will be of 1. Working with a built-in oscillator-type piezo buzzer generates about 1kHz tone. Just after a time interval of 0. This is followed by two seconds of no sound interval.
Thereafter the pulse pattern repeats by itself. It can be adjusted to give the desired speed for the display. The output of the is directly connected to the input of a Johnson Counter CD The 10 outputs Q 0 to Q 9 become active, one at a time, on the rising edge of the waveform from the Each output can deliver about 20mA but a LED should not be connected to the output without a current-limiting resistor R in the circuit above.
The first 6 outputs of the chip are connected directly to the 6 LEDs and these "move" across the display. The next 4 outputs move the effect in the opposite direction and the cycle repeats.
The animation above shows how the effect appears on the display. Using six 3mm LEDs, the display can be placed in the front of a model car to give a very realistic effect. The same outputs can be taken to driver transistors to produce a larger version of the display. The outputs are "fighting" each other via the R resistors except outputs Q0 and Q5.
This circuit drives 11 LEDs with a cross-over effect: The battery voltage for a car can range from 11v to nearly 16v, depending on the state-of-charge and the RPM of the engine. This circuit provides constant current so the LEDs are not over-driven.
When the first IC turns off, the n is uncharged because both ends are at rail voltage and it pulses pin 2 of the middle LOW. This activates the and pin 3 goes HIGH. This pin supplies rail voltage to the third and the two red LEDs are alternately flashed. See it in action: The circuit consumes about 30mA when sitting and waiting. The circuit consumes less than 1mA. The motor does not work. When the push switch is pressed and released, the advances to pin 2 and the motor turns clock-wise.
When the push switch is pressed and released again, the advances to pin 7 and the motor turns anti-clockwise. When the push switch is pressed and released again, the advances to pin 10 and the chip resets and the motor STOPS.
The 2u2 prevents switch-bounce to get a clean pulse each time the switch is pressed. If the battery voltage is 12v, the circuit will deliver about 9v at 20mA. The regulator has an internal voltage reference of 1. As the current required by the circuit increases, the voltage across this resistor will increase. When it is 1. If the current increases due to the output resistance decreasing, the voltage across the resistor increases and the LN reduces the output voltage.
This causes the current to reduce to 20mA. This is how the circuit produces a constant current. The output current can be changed to any value according to the formula shown below. The current will also depend on the rating of the plug pack. As soon as the current reaches the limit set by the R pot, the BC transistor starts to turn on and rob the regulator of voltage on the Adj pin.
The output voltage starts to reduce. If the output is shorted, the output voltage will reduce to almost zero. Many CMOS chips can be used for this purpose. CD , , as they all have very sensitive inputs. This circuit will also detect "Mains Hum. Use a small length of copper-clad PC board 1cm wide for the detector.
The LED will flash when the antenna is 10cm to 15cm from the cable. The mains must be active and will not work when the light-switch is turned off. They are TTL chips and operate on 4. When you realise its versatility, you will use it for lots of designs. In this section we describe its capability and provide circuits to show how it can be used. Minimum supply voltage 5v Maximum supply voltage 15v Max current per output 10mA - 60mA total Maximum speed of operation 4MHz Current consumption approx 1uA with nothing connected to the inputs or outputs.
The output of each gate will deliver about 10mA. For up to mA, a BC can be used. For up to 4 amps a BD Darlington transistor can be used. Each gate is a separate "Building Block.
Here is how it works: It takes less than 1 microamp on the input to make the output high or low. Here's the second feature of the gate: There are 6 of the gates in the IC and they are all internally wired to the power rails. You can think of the input as having infinite impedance resistance , so it does not put a load on anything connected to this pin.
Here is an animation of how the gate works. The input has to be above mid-rail for the output to change and below mid-rail for the output to change back to its originals state. It does not matter if the capacitor is placed above or below the resistor as the time delay will be the same. The only difference will be the value of the voltage at the beginning and end of the timing cycle. The join of the two components is the point where the voltage is detected and is called the " Detection Point.
This will be the input of one of the Schmitt gates. In other words the detection circuit must have a very high input impedance. That's the advantage of this IC. If we monitor the voltage across the capacitor, we can determine when it is at a particular voltage level. In the animation below we see the capacitor charging via a resistor, with a meter showing the approx voltage across the capacitor. The capacitor does not charge at a constant rate, but this characteristic does not concern us at the moment.
The point to remember is the TIME it takes for the capacitor to charge. Here is the clever part.
Instead of the voltmeter monitoring the voltage across the capacitor, the input of the Schmitt Inverter can be connected to the capacitor. In this way we need only one gate to create an oscillator. There are two very important things to observe in the animation below. The output is a square wave. The animation below shows the gate in operation. You will notice that the diagram does not show the chip connected to the positive and negative rail.
Here are the basic oscillator blocks for a 74C14 IC:. An oscillator is created by placing a resistor from output to input and a capacitor from input to 0v. The output will be a square-wave and and the mark high will be equal to the space low. The frequency of the output will depend on the value of R and C.